Aldeyra Therapeutics
Aldeyra Therapeutics, Inc. (Form: 424B5, Received: 09/18/2017 16:29:56)
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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-206539

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is not complete and may be changed. A registration statement relating to these securities has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell nor do they solicit an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED SEPTEMBER 18, 2017

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(to Prospectus dated September 1, 2015)

                Shares

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

We are offering                 shares of our common stock.

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “ALDX.” On September 15, 2017, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Capital Market was $8.90 per share.

We are an emerging growth company as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference herein and future filings.

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “ Risk Factors ” beginning on page S- 7 of this prospectus supplement and page 6 of the accompanying prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 
     Per Share          Total      

 

 

Public Offering Price

   $                   $               

Underwriting Discount and Commissions (1)

   $      $  

Proceeds to Aldeyra Therapeutics, Inc. (before expenses)

   $      $  

 

 

 

(1)   See “Underwriting” beginning on page S-20 of this prospectus supplement for additional information regarding the compensation payable to the underwriters.

Delivery of the shares of common stock is expected to be made on or about             , 2017. We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 30 days to purchase up to an additional             shares of our common stock. If the underwriters exercise the option in full, the total underwriting discounts and commissions payable by us will be $             and the total proceeds to us, before expenses, will be $            .

Sole Book-Running Manager

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

Lead Manager

 

Laidlaw & Company (UK) Ltd.

The date of this prospectus supplement is                     , 2017.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus Supplement

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-ii  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-iii  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     S-1  

THE OFFERING

     S-5  

RISK FACTORS

     S-7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-12  

PRICE RANGE OF OUR COMMON STOCK

     S-13  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     S-13  

CAPITALIZATION

     S-14  

DILUTION

     S-15  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS

     S-16  

UNDERWRITING

     S-20  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-29  

EXPERTS

     S-29  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-29  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     S-30  

Prospectus

  
     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     1  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     1  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     3  

THE COMPANY

     5  

OUR CORPORATE INFORMATION

     5  

RISK FACTORS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

     38  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     51  

RATIO OF FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERENCE DIVIDENDS TO EARNINGS

     51  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     51  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     51  

LEGAL MATTERS

     52  

EXPERTS

     53  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the terms of this offering of common stock and related matters. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, which gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering of common stock. To the extent the information contained in this prospectus supplement differs or varies from the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference, the information in this prospectus supplement shall control.

All references in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus to “Aldeyra,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” or similar references refer to Aldeyra Therapeutics, Inc., except where the context otherwise requires or as otherwise indicated.

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any free-writing prospectus that we authorize to be distributed to you. We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell, nor are they seeking an offer to buy, these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted. The information in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any document incorporated by reference herein or therein, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is complete and accurate as of the date the information is presented, but the information may have changed since that date.

“Aldeyra Therapeutics” and our design logo used in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are our trademarks. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may also include other trademarks, tradenames and service marks that are the property of their respective holders. Solely for convenience, trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may appear without the ® and ™ symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or that the applicable holder will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and tradenames.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in these documents contain forward-looking statements. Words such as, but not limited to, “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “target,” “goal,” “likely,” “will,” “would,” and “could,” or the negative of these terms and similar expressions or words, identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based upon current expectations that involve risks, changes in circumstances, assumptions and uncertainties. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those reflected in our forward-looking statements include, among others:

 

    the timing of enrollment, commencement and completion of our clinical trials;

 

    the timing and success of preclinical studies and clinical trials conducted by us and our development partners;

 

    the ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, and the labeling for any approved products;

 

    the scope, progress, expansion, and costs of developing and commercializing our product candidates;

 

    the size and growth of the potential markets and pricing for our product candidates and the ability to serve those markets;

 

    our expectations regarding our expenses and revenue, the sufficiency or use of our cash resources and needs for additional financing;

 

    the rate and degree of market acceptance of any of our product candidates;

 

    our expectations regarding competition;

 

    our anticipated growth strategies;

 

    our ability to attract or retain key personnel;

 

    our ability to establish and maintain development partnerships;

 

    our expectations regarding federal, state and foreign regulatory requirements;

 

    regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

    our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates; and

 

    the anticipated trends and challenges in our business and the market in which we operate.

All written and verbal forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We caution investors not to rely on the forward-looking statements we make or that are made on our behalf as predictions of future events. We undertake no obligation, and specifically decline any obligation, to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein include statistical and other industry and market data that we obtained from industry publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Industry publications and third-party research, surveys and studies generally indicate that their information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. While we believe these industry publications and third-party research, surveys and studies are reliable, we have not independently verified such data.

 

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In addition, you should refer to the sections of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus entitled “Risk Factors” as well as the documents we have incorporated by reference for a discussion of other important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus supplement will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following summary is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read together with, the more detailed information and financial statements and related notes thereto appearing elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Before you decide to invest in our common stock, you should read the entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus carefully, including the risk factors and the financial statements and related notes incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

Company Overview

We are a biotechnology company focused primarily on the development of new products for inflammation, inborn errors of metabolism, and other diseases that are thought to be related to endogenously generated toxic and pro-inflammatory chemical species known as aldehydes. We are developing ADX-102, as well as other novel product candidates that are designed specifically to sequester aldehydes, for the treatment of:

 

    Dry Eye Disease, a common inflammatory disease characterized by insufficient moisture and lubrication associated with the anterior surface of the eye, leading to ocular irritation, burning, stinging, and, in severe cases, loss of vision;

 

    Allergic Conjunctivitis, a common disease that affects more than 20% of the population worldwide, and related rare allergic ocular diseases that are characterized by inflammation of the conjunctiva (a membrane covering part of the front of the eye), resulting in ocular itching, excessive tear production, swelling, and redness;

 

    Noninfectious Anterior Uveitis, a rare severe inflammatory eye disease that can lead to blindness;

 

    Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome (SLS), a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in an enzyme that metabolizes fatty aldehydes, resulting in severe skin and neurological disorders; and

 

    Succinic Semi-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SSADH), a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by genetic mutations in an aldehyde-metabolizing enzyme, leading to severe neurological disease.

Dry Eye Disease

In September 2017, we announced that the results of a randomized, dose-ranging, parallel-group, double-masked Phase 2a clinical trial of 0.1% ADX-102 ophthalmic solution, 0.5% ADX-102 ophthalmic solution, and 0.5% ADX-102 lipid formulation in 51 patients (17 per arm) with dry eye disease for 28 days demonstrated statistically significant improvement of pooled change from baseline in Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye (SANDE) Score (p=0.003), Ocular Discomfort Score (p=0.00002), Overall Four-Symptom Score (p=0.0004), Schirmer (Tear Volume) Test (p=0.008), tear osmolarity (p=0.003), and Lissamine Green ocular surface staining score (p=0.002). A modest dose-response was observed, and activity increased over time from Day 8 to Day 28, supporting the effect of drug. Levels of malondialdehyde, a pro-inflammatory aldehyde mediator sequestered by ADX-102, were significantly reduced in the tears of patients (p=0.009), supporting the differentiated mechanism of action relative to other therapies in dry eye disease. Although a variety of dry eye disease clinical trial results are publicly available, comparison of clinical trial data or results may be difficult or uninformative given significant differences in patient population, duration of treatment, the nature of control arms, the particular assessment outcomes that are reported, and other factors. Dry eye disease is estimated to affect approximately 20 million people in the United States, which we believe represents one of the largest ophthalmic markets. There are currently only two products approved for marketing in the United States for the treatment of dry eye disease, Allergan’s Restasis ® (cyclosporine) and Shire’s

 



 

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Xiidra ® (lifitegrast). However, numerous drug candidates are in various stages of clinical development for dry eye disease, including Shire’s P-321, an investigational epithelial sodium channel inhibitor, and Novartis’ ECF843, a recombinant human lubricin protein. In the first half of 2018, we expect to commence a Phase 2b clinical trial of 0.1% ADX-102 ophthalmic solution for the treatment dry eye disease. The Phase 2b clinical trial is expected to be a multi-center, double-masked, parallel-group, controlled trial in approximately 225 patients, equally randomized to receive either 0.1% ADX-102, 0.25% ADX-102, or a control formulation for 12 weeks of treatment. Endpoints are expected to include standard dry eye sign and symptom measures in line with the Phase 2a clinical trial. We expect to report data from this trial in the second half of 2018.

Allergic Conjunctivitis

In February 2016, we announced that the results of a randomized, parallel-group, double-masked, vehicle-controlled Phase 2a clinical trial of ADX-102 ophthalmic solution in patients with allergic conjunctivitis demonstrated statistically significant activity of ADX-102 over vehicle in reducing ocular itching and tearing. In June 2017, we announced that the results of a randomized, parallel-group, double-masked, multi-center, saline-controlled Phase 2b clinical trial of topical ocular ADX-102 in patients with allergic conjunctivitis demonstrated statistically significant activity of ADX-102 over vehicle in reducing ocular itching. In subjects with seasonal allergy, reductions in itching were up to 0.8 points over vehicle (on a 0 to 4 point scale, p=0.002), approaching the one-point threshold of activity required for achievement of a co-primary endpoint of the trial. We estimate that approximately 30 million patients in the United States suffer from late-phase allergic conjunctivitis. In the first half of 2018, we expect to commence a Phase 3 clinical trial of topical ocular ADX-102, for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis and expect to report data from this trial in the second half of 2018.

Noninfectious Anterior Uveitis

In May 2016, we announced that the results of our randomized, parallel-group, investigator-masked, multi-center, active-controlled Phase 2 clinical trial of ADX-102 ophthalmic solution in patients with noninfectious anterior uveitis demonstrated that ADX-102 reduced inflammatory cell count in the anterior chamber of the eye to a degree similar to that of standard-of-care corticosteroid therapy (which may lead to cataracts and glaucoma in some patients), but without the intraocular pressure elevations that were observed in subjects treated with corticosteroids. An estimated 150,000 patients in the United States suffer from noninfectious anterior uveitis. We have commenced a Phase 3 clinical trial of topical ocular ADX-102 over vehicle for the treatment of noninfectious anterior uveitis and expect to report data in the second half of 2018.

Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome (SLS)

In August 2016, we announced that the results of a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, multi-center, vehicle-controlled clinical trial of a dermatologic formulation of ADX-102 for the treatment of the skin manifestations of SLS demonstrated clinically relevant activity of ADX-102 in diminishing the severity of ichthyosis, a serious dermatologic disease characteristic of SLS, that was statistically superior to the results found in vehicle-treated patients. In April 2017, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted ADX-102 orphan drug designation for the treatment of congenital ichthyosis. In the first half of 2018, we expect to begin part one of a two-part Phase 3 clinical trial of topical dermatologic ADX-102 for the treatment of the skin manifestations of SLS, and expect to report data from part one of the trial in the second half of 2018.

In the second half of 2018, we expect to begin a planned Phase 1 clinical trial of a systemically administered aldehyde trap, and, subsequently a Phase 2 clinical trial in SLS, SSADH, or a systemic inflammatory disorder.

In all clinical trials completed to date, ADX-102 was generally well tolerated, and no serious adverse events have been reported.

 



 

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All of our development timelines could be subject to adjustment depending on recruitment rate, regulatory agency review, preclinical and clinical results and other factors that could delay the initiation or completion of clinical trials.

We have no products approved for sale. We will not receive any revenue from any product candidates that we develop until we obtain regulatory approval and commercialize such products or until we potentially enter into agreements with third parties for the development and commercialization of product candidates. In addition, it may be difficult or not possible to obtain from the FDA orphan drug designation or a designation that facilitates and expedites development and review of certain new drugs, including breakthrough therapy designation, fast track designation or any other expedited status that we may apply for in the future, for ADX-102 or our other product candidates, and if we are unable to obtain such designations, our regulatory and commercial prospects may be negatively impacted. If our development efforts for any of our product candidates result in regulatory approval or we enter into collaboration agreements with third parties, we may generate revenue from product sales or from such third parties. We have primarily funded our operations through the sale of our convertible preferred stock, common stock, convertible promissory notes, warrants and borrowings under our loan and security agreements. We will need to raise additional capital in the form of debt or equity or through partnerships to fund additional development of ADX-102 and other aldehyde traps, and we may in-license, acquire, or invest in complementary businesses or products. In addition, contingent on capital resources, we may augment, diminish or otherwise modify our clinical development plans.

Since our incorporation, we have devoted substantially all of our resources to the preclinical and clinical development of our product candidates. Our ability to generate revenues largely depends upon our ability, alone or with others, to complete the development of our product candidates to obtain the regulatory approvals for and to manufacture, market and sell our products and product candidates. The results of our operations will vary significantly from year-to-year and quarter-to-quarter and depend on a number of factors, including risks related to our business and industry, risks relating to intellectual property and other legal matters, risks related to our common stock, and other risks that are detailed in, or incorporated by reference into, the section of this prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors.”

Our Corporate Information

We were incorporated in the state of Delaware on August 13, 2004 as Neuron Systems, Inc. On December 20, 2012, we changed our name to Aldexa Therapeutics, Inc. and on March 17, 2014, we changed our name to Aldeyra Therapeutics, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 131 Hartwell Avenue, Suite 320, Lexington, Massachusetts 02421. Our telephone number is (781) 761-4904. Our website address is www.aldeyra.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, and you should not consider information contained on our website to be part of this prospectus supplement or in deciding whether to purchase shares of our common stock. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available free of charge on the Investors portion of our website at http://ir.aldeyra.com/ as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

 



 

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Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

As a company with less than $1.07 billion in revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (JOBS Act). An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other burdens that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include:

 

    a requirement to have only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related management’s discussion and analysis;

 

    exemption from the auditor attestation requirement on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting;

 

    reduced disclosure about the company’s executive compensation arrangements; and

 

    no non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements.

We may take advantage of these provisions until December 31, 2019 or until such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue, have more than $700 million in market value of our capital stock held by non-affiliates, or issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period. We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced burdens.

We have elected to take advantage of certain of the reduced disclosure obligations in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in the documents incorporated herein and therein by reference and may elect to take advantage of other reduced reporting requirements in future filings. Additionally, as a smaller reporting company we have taken advantage of certain reduced reporting obligations available to smaller reporting companies.

The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption and, as a result, we adopt new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

 



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

                   shares of common stock.

Option to purchase additional shares

   We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of up to 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement to purchase up to                 additional shares of common stock at the public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions.

Offering price

               per share of common stock.

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

                   shares (or                 shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares).

Use of Proceeds

   We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash resources, for the continued development of ADX-102 and our other product candidates, including a Phase 3 clinical trial of topical ocular ADX-102 in noninfectious anterior uveitis, a planned Phase 3 clinical trial of topical ocular ADX-102 in allergic conjunctivitis, a planned Phase 2b clinical trial of topical ocular ADX-102 in dry eye disease, a planned Phase 3 clinical trial of topical dermatologic ADX-102 in SLS, a planned Phase 1 clinical trial of systemically administered ADX-102 or another product candidate, and one or more planned Phase 2a clinical trials of ADX-102 or another product candidate in SLS, SSADH Deficiency, or systemic inflammation, debt maintenance, working capital and other general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds.”

Risk Factors

   You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement for a discussion of factors to consider before deciding to purchase shares of our common stock.

NASDAQ Capital Market symbol

   ALDX

The number of shares of our common stock outstanding is based on 15,150,176 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2017 and excludes the following:

 

    2,345,641 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2017, at a weighted average exercise price of approximately $4.80 per share;

 

    157,128 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock units outstanding as of June 30, 2017;

 

    757,788 shares of common stock reserved for future grants under our 2013 Equity Incentive Plan as of June 30, 2017 (subject to automatic annual adjustment in accordance with the terms of the plan);

 

    211,741 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of June 30, 2017 (subject to automatic annual adjustment in accordance with the terms of the plan); and

 

    1,384,608 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2017, at a weighted average exercise price of approximately $9.52 per share.

 



 

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Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes:

 

    that the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase up to                 additional shares of our common stock; and

 

    no exercise of the outstanding options or warrants, or settlement of outstanding restricted stock units, described above.

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described under “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and all of the other information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes, before investing in our common stock. If any of the possible events described below or in those sections actually occur, our business, business prospects, cash flow, results of operations or financial condition could be harmed, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you might lose all or part of your investment in our common stock. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our operations and results.

Risks Related to This Offering and Our Common Stock

An active trading market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained and investors may not be able to resell their shares at or above the price at which they purchased them.

We have a limited history as a public company. An active trading market for our shares may never develop or be sustained. In the absence of an active trading market for our common stock, investors may not be able to sell their common stock at or above the price they paid or at the time that they would like to sell. In addition, an inactive market may impair our ability to raise capital by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire other companies or technologies by using our shares as consideration, which, in turn, could harm our business.

The trading price of the shares of our common stock has been and is likely to continue to be highly volatile, and purchasers of our common stock could incur substantial losses.

Our stock price has been and will likely continue to be volatile for the foreseeable future. The stock market in general and the market for biotechnology companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, investors may not be able to sell their common stock at or above the price they paid. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

 

    our ability to enroll patients in our planned clinical trials;

 

    results of the clinical trials, and the results of trials of our competitors or those of other companies in our market sector;

 

    regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

    variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

 

    changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems, especially in light of current reforms to the United States healthcare system;

 

    announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

    market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors and issuance of securities analysts’ reports or recommendations;

 

    sales of our stock by insiders and 5% stockholders;

 

    trading volume of our common stock;

 

    general economic, industry and market conditions other events or factors, many of which are beyond our control;

 

    additions or departures of key personnel; and

 

    intellectual property, product liability or other litigation against us.

 

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In addition, in the past, stockholders have initiated class action lawsuits against biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies following periods of volatility in the market prices of these companies’ stock. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could cause us to incur substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly.

We expect our operating results to be subject to quarterly fluctuations. Our net loss and other operating results will be affected by numerous factors, including:

 

    variations in the level of expenses related to our clinical trial and development programs;

 

    addition or termination of clinical trials;

 

    any intellectual property infringement lawsuit in which we may become involved;

 

    regulatory developments affecting ADX-102 and our other product candidates;

 

    our execution of any collaborative, licensing or similar arrangements, and the timing of payments we may make or receive under these arrangements;

 

    nature and terms of stock-based compensation grants; and

 

    derivative instruments recorded at fair value.

If our quarterly operating results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Furthermore, any quarterly fluctuations in our operating results may, in turn, cause the price of our stock to fluctuate substantially. We believe that quarterly comparisons of our financial results are not necessarily meaningful and should not be relied upon as an indication of our future performance.

You will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Based on                 shares of our common stock being sold at the public offering price of $         per share, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $         million, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you will experience immediate dilution of $         per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2017 after giving effect to this offering and the public offering price. In addition, we are not restricted from issuing additional securities in the future, including shares of common stock, securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or that represent the right to receive, common stock or substantially similar securities. The issuance of these securities may cause further dilution to our stockholders. The exercise of outstanding stock options and the vesting of outstanding restricted stock units may also result in further dilution of your investment. See the section entitled “Dilution” on page S-15 below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you may incur if you participate in this offering.

Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of The NASDAQ Capital Market could result in a delisting of our common stock.

If we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of The NASDAQ Capital Market, such as the corporate governance requirements or the minimum closing bid price requirement, NASDAQ may take steps to de-list our common stock. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of our common stock and would impair your ability to sell or purchase our common stock when you wish to do so. In the event of a delisting, we would expect to take actions to restore our compliance with NASDAQ’s listing requirements, but

 

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we can provide no assurance that any such action taken by us would allow our common stock to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our common stock, prevent our common stock from dropping below the NASDAQ minimum bid price requirement or prevent future non-compliance with NASDAQ’s listing requirements.

If our shares become subject to the penny stock rules, it would become more difficult to trade our shares.

The SEC has adopted rules that regulate broker-dealer practices in connection with transactions in penny stocks. Penny stocks are generally equity securities with a price of less than $5.00, other than securities registered on certain national securities exchanges or authorized for quotation on certain automated quotation systems, provided that current price and volume information with respect to transactions in such securities is provided by the exchange or system. If we do not retain a listing on The NASDAQ Capital Market and if the price of our common stock is less than $5.00, our common stock will be deemed a penny stock. The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, before a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document containing specified information. In addition, the penny stock rules require that before effecting any transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, a broker-dealer must make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive (i) the purchaser’s written acknowledgment of the receipt of a risk disclosure statement; (ii) a written agreement to transactions involving penny stocks; and (iii) a signed and dated copy of a written suitability statement. These disclosure requirements may have the effect of reducing the trading activity in the secondary market for our common stock, and therefore stockholders may have difficulty selling their shares.

We may allocate our cash and cash equivalents, including the proceeds from this offering, in ways that you and other stockholders may not approve.

Our management has broad discretion in the application of our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, including the proceeds from this offering. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of our cash and cash equivalents, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management might not apply our cash and cash equivalents in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. We expect to use of our cash and cash equivalents to fund our planned clinical trials of ADX-102 and our other product candidates, development of other molecules that may relate to our aldehyde trapping platform, and the remainder for debt maintenance, working capital and other general corporate purposes. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we may invest our cash and cash equivalents in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply our cash and cash equivalents, including the proceeds from this offering, in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.

Because a small number of our existing stockholders own a majority of our voting stock, your ability to influence corporate matters will be limited.

As of June 30, 2017, our executive officers, directors and greater than 5% stockholders, in the aggregate, owned approximately 57.0% of our outstanding common stock. As a result, such persons, acting together, will have the ability to control our management and business affairs and substantially all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election and removal of directors and approval of any significant transaction. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control, impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us, or discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our business, even if such a transaction would benefit other stockholders.

 

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Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.

Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may delay or prevent an acquisition of us or a change in our management. These provisions include:

 

    authorizing the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval;

 

    limiting the removal of directors by the stockholders;

 

    creating a staggered board of directors;

 

    prohibiting stockholder action by written consent, thereby requiring all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of our stockholders;

 

    eliminating the ability of stockholders to call a special meeting of stockholders;

 

    permitting our board of directors to accelerate the vesting of outstanding option grants upon certain transactions that result in a change of control; and

 

    establishing advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings.

In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which limits the ability of stockholders owning in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock to merge or combine with us. Although we believe these provisions collectively provide for an opportunity to obtain greater value for stockholders by requiring potential acquirors to negotiate with our board of directors, they would apply even if an offer rejected by our board were considered beneficial by some stockholders. In addition, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management.

We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividend on our common stock and do not currently intend to do so for the foreseeable future. We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. In addition, our loan and security agreement with Pacific Western Bank currently prohibits us from paying dividends on our equity securities, and any future debt financing arrangement may contain terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our common stock. Any return to stockholders will therefore be limited to the appreciation of their stock. Therefore, the success of an investment in shares of our common stock will depend upon any future appreciation in their value. There is no guarantee that shares of our common stock will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which our stockholders have purchased their shares.

A substantial number of shares of our common stock could be sold into the public market in the near future, which could depress our stock price.

Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market could reduce the prevailing market prices for our common stock. Substantially all of our outstanding common stock are eligible for sale as are common stock issuable under vested and exercisable stock options. If our existing stockholders sell a large number of shares of our common stock, or the public market perceives that existing stockholders might sell shares of common stock, the market price of our common stock could decline significantly. These sales might also make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities at a time and price that we deem appropriate.

 

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If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports or publish unfavorable research or reports about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. We currently have limited research coverage by securities and industry analysts. If other securities or industry analysts do not commence coverage of our company, the trading price for our stock could be negatively impacted. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our stock, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases to cover us or fails to regularly publish reports on us, interest in our stock could decrease, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

We could be subject to securities class action litigation.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. This risk is especially relevant for us because pharmaceutical companies have experienced significant stock price volatility in recent years. If we face such litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business.

Our business could be negatively affected as a result of the actions of activist stockholders.

Proxy contests have been waged against many companies in the biopharmaceutical industry over the last few years. We may be particularly vulnerable to these actions due to the highly concentrated ownership of our common stock. If faced with a proxy contest or other type of shareholder activism, we may not be able to respond successfully to the contest or dispute, which would be disruptive to our business. Even if we are successful, our business could be adversely affected by a proxy contest or shareholder dispute involving us or our partners because:

 

    responding to proxy contests and other actions by activist stockholders can be costly and time-consuming, disrupting operations and diverting the attention of management and employees;

 

    perceived uncertainties as to future direction may result in the loss of potential acquisitions, collaborations or in-licensing opportunities, and may make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel and business partners; and

 

    if individuals are elected to a board of directors with a specific agenda, it may adversely affect our ability to effectively and timely implement our strategic plan and create additional value for our stockholders.

These actions could cause our stock price to experience periods of volatility.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds from the public sale of                 shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $         million, or approximately $         million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of common stock, based on the public offering price of         per share, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

As of June 30, 2017, we had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $25.8 million. We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, together with such existing cash resources, for the continued development of ADX-102 and our other product candidates, including a Phase 3 clinical trial of topical ocular ADX-102 in noninfectious anterior uveitis, a planned Phase 3 clinical trial of topical ocular ADX-102 in allergic conjunctivitis, a planned Phase 2b clinical trial of topical ocular ADX-102 in dry eye disease, a planned Phase 3 clinical trial of topical dermatologic ADX-102 in SLS, a planned Phase 1 clinical trial of systemically administered ADX-102 or another product candidate, and one or more planned Phase 2a clinical trials of ADX-102 or another product candidate in SLS, SSADH Deficiency, or systemic inflammation, debt maintenance, working capital and other general corporate purposes. This expected use of net proceeds from this offering represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions, which could change in the future as our plans and business conditions evolve. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we are not currently planning or negotiating any such transactions. We have not yet determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for any of the foregoing purposes. Accordingly, our management will have significant discretion and flexibility in applying the net proceeds from the sale of these securities. Pending any use, as described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds in high-quality, short-term, interest-bearing securities.

We believe, based on our current operating plan and expected expenditures, that our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, together with the proceeds from this offering, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated cash and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 24 months. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could utilize our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect.

 

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PRICE RANGE OF OUR COMMON STOCK

Our common stock is traded on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “ALDX.” The following table summarizes the high and low sales prices for our common stock as reported by The NASDAQ Capital Market for the periods indicated:

 

     High      Low  

2015

     

First Quarter

   $ 12.30      $ 6.90  

Second Quarter

     11.79        6.64  

Third Quarter

     10.90        5.35  

Fourth Quarter

     7.70        4.84  

2016

     

First Quarter

   $ 6.96      $ 3.39  

Second Quarter

     6.69        4.11  

Third Quarter

     8.19        5.30  

Fourth Quarter

     7.89        4.45  

2017

     

First Quarter

   $ 5.90      $ 4.10  

Second Quarter

     5.65        3.80  

Third Quarter (through September 15, 2017)

     11.90        3.90  

The last reported sale price for our common stock on The NASDAQ Capital Market on September 15, 2017 was $8.90.

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for use in the operation of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to compliance with certain covenants under our credit facilities, which restrict or limit our ability to declare or pay dividends, and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. Our loan and security agreement with Pacific Western Bank currently prohibits us from paying dividends on our equity securities, and any future debt financing arrangement may contain terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our common stock.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our capitalization as of June 30, 2017:

 

    on an actual basis; and

 

    on an as adjusted basis to give effect to the issuance and sale by us of                 shares of common stock in this offering, and the receipt of the net proceeds from the sale of these shares, at the public offering price of             , after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

You should read this table in conjunction with the sections titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes appearing in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

     As of June 30, 2017  
     Actual      As Adjusted  
     (unaudited)  

Credit facility, net of current portion and debt discount

   $ 1,016,377      $ 1,016,377  

Stockholders’ equity:

     

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 15,000,000 shares authorized, none issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2017, actual and as adjusted

     —          —    

Common stock, voting, $0.001 par value; 150,000,000 authorized and 15,150,176 shares issued and outstanding, actual;              shares issued and outstanding, as adjusted

     15,150     

Additional paid-in capital

     111,030,501     

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax

     (4,640   

Accumulated deficit

     (87,701,215      (87,701,215
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ equity

     23,339,796     
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   $ 24,356,173      $  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

The number of shares in the table above excludes:

 

    2,345,641 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2017, at a weighted average exercise price of approximately $4.80 per share;

 

    157,128 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock units outstanding as of June 30, 2017;

 

    757,788 shares of common stock reserved for future grants under our 2013 Equity Incentive Plan as of June 30, 2017 (subject to automatic annual adjustment in accordance with the terms of the plan);

 

    211,741 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of June 30, 2017 (subject to automatic annual adjustment in accordance with the terms of the plan); and

 

    1,384,608 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2017, at a weighted average exercise price of approximately $9.52 per share.

 

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DILUTION

If you purchase our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of common stock and the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering. Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing the number of outstanding shares of our common stock into our total tangible assets (total assets less intangible assets) less total liabilities. As of June 30, 2017, we had a net tangible book value of our common stock of $23.3 million, or approximately $1.54 per share.

Investors participating in this offering will incur immediate, substantial dilution. After giving effect to the sale of shares of common stock in this offering at the public offering price of              per share, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2017 would have been approximately $             million, or approximately $             per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of approximately $             per share to existing stockholders, and an immediate dilution of approximately $             per share to investors participating in this offering.

The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

Public offering price per share

      $               

Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2017

   $ 1.54     

Increase in net tangible book value per share after this offering

   $     

Net tangible book value per share after this offering

      $  

Dilution per share to investors participating in this offering

      $  

If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase             additional shares of common stock at the public offering price of              per share, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after this offering would be approximately $             per share, representing an increase in net tangible book value of approximately $             per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution in net tangible book value of approximately $             per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering at the public offering price.

The above discussion and tables also excludes:

 

    2,345,641 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2017, at a weighted average exercise price of approximately $4.80 per share;

 

    157,128 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock units outstanding as of June 30, 2017;

 

    757,788 shares of common stock reserved for future grants under our 2013 Equity Incentive Plan as of June 30, 2017 (subject to automatic annual adjustment in accordance with the terms of the plan);

 

    211,741 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan as of June 30, 2017 (subject to automatic annual adjustment in accordance with the terms of the plan); and

 

    1,384,608 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2017, at a weighted average exercise price of approximately $9.52 per share.

To the extent that any of these options or warrants are exercised, restricted stock units are settled, new options or restricted stock units are issued under our equity incentive plans and subsequently exercised or settled or we issue additional shares of common stock or securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or that represent the right to receive, common stock or substantially similar securities in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL TAX CONSIDERATIONS TO NON-U.S. HOLDERS

The following summary describes the material U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common stock acquired in this offering by Non-U.S. Holders (as defined below). This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income and estate taxes and does not deal with foreign, state and local tax consequences that may be relevant to Non-U.S. Holders in light of their particular circumstances, nor does it address U.S. federal tax consequences other than income and estate taxes (such as the alternative minimum tax or the Medicare contribution tax). Special rules different from those described below may apply to certain Non-U.S. Holders that are subject to special treatment under the Code, such as financial institutions, insurance companies, tax-exempt organizations, broker-dealers and traders in securities, U.S. expatriates, “controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax, persons that hold our common stock as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction,” “synthetic security” or integrated investment or other risk reduction strategy, persons who received our common stock pursuant to a compensatory transaction, partnerships and other pass-through entities, and investors in such pass-through entities. Such Non-U.S. Holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors to determine the U.S. federal, state, local and other tax consequences that may be relevant to them. Furthermore, the discussion below is based upon the provisions of the Code, and Treasury regulations, rulings and judicial decisions thereunder as of the date hereof, and such authorities may be repealed, revoked or modified, perhaps retroactively, so as to result in U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences different from those discussed below. We have not requested a ruling from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, with respect to the statements made and the conclusions reached in the following summary, and there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree with such statements and conclusions. This discussion assumes that the Non-U.S. Holder holds our common stock as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment).

Persons considering the purchase of our common stock pursuant to this offering should consult their own tax advisors concerning the U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of our common stock in light of their particular situations as well as any consequences arising under the laws of any other taxing jurisdiction, including any state, local or foreign tax consequences.

For the purposes of this discussion, a “Non-U.S. Holder” is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, a beneficial owner of common stock that is neither a U.S. Holder, a partnership (or other entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes regardless of its place of organization or formation), nor an entity that is treated as a disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes (regardless of its place of organization or formation). A “U.S. Holder” means a beneficial owner of our common stock that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes (a) an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States, (b) a corporation or other entity treated as a corporation created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, (c) an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source or (d) a trust if it (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a court within the United States and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) has a valid election in effect under applicable U.S. Treasury regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

If an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our common stock, the tax treatment of persons treated as its partners for U.S. federal income tax purposes will generally depend upon the status of such partner and the activities of the said entity. Partnerships and other entities that are classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes and persons holding our common stock through such entities are encouraged to consult with their own tax advisors regarding the possible implications of these rules for their investment in our common stock.

 

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Distributions

As indicated in the “Dividend Policy” section of this prospectus, we have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock and we currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for use in the operation of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

In the event that we do make a distribution, subject to the discussion below, distributions made on our common stock to a Non-U.S. Holder to the extent made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits (as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles) generally will constitute dividends for U.S. tax purposes and will be subject to withholding tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty. To obtain a reduced rate of withholding under a tax treaty, a Non-U.S. Holder generally must provide us with a properly executed applicable IRS Form W-8, or other appropriate form, certifying the Non-U.S. Holder’s entitlement to benefits under that treaty. In the case of a Non-U.S. Holder that is an entity, Treasury Regulations and the relevant tax treaty provide rules to determine whether, for purposes of determining the applicability of a tax treaty, dividends will be treated as paid to the entity or to those persons holding an interest in that entity. If a Non-U.S. Holder holds stock through a financial institution or other agent acting on the holder’s behalf, the holder will be required to provide appropriate documentation to such agent. The holder’s agent will then be required to provide certification to us or our paying agent, either directly or through other intermediaries. If a Non-U.S. Holder is eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. federal withholding tax under an income tax treaty, such Non-U.S. Holder may be able to obtain a refund or credit of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim with the IRS.

We generally are not required to withhold tax on dividends paid to a Non-U.S. Holder that are effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, are attributable to a permanent establishment that such holder maintains in the United States) if a properly executed IRS Form W-8ECI, stating that the dividends are so connected, is furnished to us (or, if stock is held through a financial institution or other agent, to such agent). In general, such effectively connected dividends will be subject to U.S. federal income tax, on a net income basis at the regular graduated rates. A corporate Non-U.S. Holder receiving effectively connected dividends may also be subject to an additional “branch profits tax,” which is imposed, under certain circumstances, at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable treaty) on the corporate Non-U.S. Holder’s effectively connected earnings and profits, subject to certain adjustments.

To the extent distributions on our common stock, if any, exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, they will first reduce a Non-U.S. Holder’s adjusted basis in our common stock, but not below zero, and then will be treated as gain to the extent of any excess, and taxed in the same manner as gain realized from a sale or other disposition of common stock as described in the next section.

Gain on Disposition of Our Common Stock

Subject to the discussion below regarding backup withholding and foreign accounts, a Non-U.S. Holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax with respect to gain realized on a sale or other disposition of our common stock unless (a) the gain is effectively connected with a trade or business of such holder in the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, is attributable to a permanent establishment that such holder maintains in the United States), (b) the Non-U.S. Holder is a nonresident alien individual and is present in the United States for 183 or more days in the taxable year of the disposition and certain other conditions are met, or (c) we are or have been a “United States real property holding corporation” within the meaning of Code Section 897(c)(2) at any time within the shorter of the five-year period preceding such disposition or such holder’s holding period. In general, we would be a United States real property holding corporation if interests in U.S. real estate comprised (by fair market value) at least half of our business assets. We believe that we are not, and do not anticipate becoming, a United States real property holding corporation. Even if we are treated as a United States real property holding corporation, gain realized by a Non-U.S. Holder on a

 

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disposition of our common stock will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax so long as (1) the Non-U.S. Holder owned, directly, indirectly and constructively, no more than five percent of our common stock at all times within the shorter of (i) the five-year period preceding the disposition or (ii) the holder’s holding period and (2) our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market. There can be no assurance that our common stock will, or will continue to, qualify as regularly traded on an established securities market. If we are a United States real property holding corporation and either our common stock is not regularly traded on an established securities market or a Non-U.S. Holder holds more than five percent of our outstanding common stock, directly or indirectly, during the applicable testing period, such Non-U.S. Holder’s gain on the disposition of shares of our common stock generally will be taxed in the same manner as gain that is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business, except that the branch profits tax generally will not apply. If we are a United States real property holding corporation and our common stock is not regularly traded on an established securities market, a Non-U.S. Holder’s proceeds received on the disposition of shares will also generally be subject to withholding at a rate of 15%. Prospective investors are encouraged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the possible consequences to them if we are, or were to become, a United States real property holding corporation.

A Non-U.S. Holder described in (a) above, will generally be required to pay tax on the net gain derived from the sale at regular graduated U.S. federal income tax rates, and corporate Non-U.S. Holders described in (a) above may be subject to the additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty. An individual Non-U.S. Holder described in (b) above, will be required to pay a flat 30% tax on the gain derived from the sale, which gain may be offset by U.S. source capital losses (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States).

Information Reporting Requirements and Backup Withholding

Generally, we must report information to the IRS with respect to any dividends we pay on our common stock including the amount of any such dividends, the name and address of the recipient, and the amount, if any, of tax withheld. A similar report is sent to the holder to whom any such dividends are paid. Pursuant to tax treaties or certain other agreements, the IRS may make its reports available to tax authorities in the recipient’s country of residence.

Dividends paid by us (or our paying agents) to a Non-U.S. Holder may also be subject to U.S. backup withholding. U.S. backup withholding generally will not apply to a Non-U.S. Holder who provides a properly executed applicable IRS Form W-8 (and the payor does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a U.S. person) or otherwise establishes an exemption.

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, U.S. information reporting and backup withholding requirements generally will apply to the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock effected by or through a U.S. office of any broker, U.S. or foreign, except that information reporting and such requirements may be avoided if the holder provides a properly executed applicable IRS Form W-8 or otherwise meets documentary evidence requirements for establishing Non-U.S. Holder status or otherwise establishes an exemption. Generally, U.S. information reporting and backup withholding requirements will not apply to a payment of disposition proceeds to a Non-U.S. Holder where the transaction is effected outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker. Information reporting and backup withholding requirements may, however, apply to a payment of disposition proceeds if the broker has actual knowledge, or reason to know, that the holder is, in fact, a U.S. person. For information reporting purposes, certain brokers with substantial U.S. ownership or operations will generally be treated in a manner similar to U.S. brokers.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts of tax withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or credits against the tax liability of persons subject to backup withholding, provided that the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

 

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Additional Withholding and Reporting Requirements

A U.S. federal withholding tax of 30% may apply on dividends and the gross proceeds of a disposition of our common stock paid to a foreign financial institution (as specifically defined by applicable rules ) unless such institution enters into an agreement with the U.S. government to withhold on certain payments and to collect and provide to the U.S. tax authorities substantial information regarding U.S. account holders of such institution (which includes certain equity holders of such institution, as well as certain account holders that are foreign entities with U.S. owners). This U.S. federal withholding tax of 30% will also apply on dividends and the gross proceeds of a disposition of our common stock to a non-financial foreign entity unless such entity provides the withholding agent with either a certification that it does not have any substantial direct or indirect U.S. owners or provides information regarding substantial direct and indirect U.S. owners of the entity. The withholding tax described above will not apply if the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from the rules. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and applicable foreign country may modify these requirements. Under certain circumstances, a Non-U.S. Holder might be eligible for refunds or credits of such taxes.

The abovementioned rules currently apply to dividend payments on our common stock and will apply to payments of gross proceeds from the disposition of our common stock occurring on or after January 1, 2019. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the possible impact of these rules on their investment in our common stock, and the possible impact of these rules on the entities through which they hold our common stock, including, without limitation, the process and deadlines for meeting the applicable requirements to prevent the imposition of this 30% withholding tax.

U.S. Federal Estate Tax

An individual Non-U.S. Holder who is treated as the owner of, or has made certain lifetime transfers of, an interest in our common stock will be required to include the value thereof in his or her gross estate for U.S. federal estate tax purposes, and may be subject to U.S. federal estate tax unless an applicable estate tax treaty provides otherwise, even though such individual was not a citizen or resident of the United States at the time of his or her death.

EACH PROSPECTIVE INVESTOR SHOULD CONSULT ITS OWN TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE TAX CONSEQUENCES OF PURCHASING, HOLDING AND DISPOSING OF OUR COMMON STOCK, INCLUDING THE CONSEQUENCES OF ANY PROPOSED CHANGE IN APPLICABLE LAW.

 

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UNDERWRITING

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement, dated             , 2017, between us and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., 499 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10022, as representative of the underwriters named below (the Representative) and the sole book-running manager of this offering, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each of the underwriters has agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, the shares of common stock shown opposite its name below:

 

Underwriter

   Number of Shares  

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

  

Laidlaw & Company (UK) Ltd.

  
  

 

 

 

Total

  
  

 

 

 

The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the several underwriters are subject to certain conditions precedent such as the receipt by the underwriters of officers’ certificates and legal opinions and approval of certain legal matters by their counsel. The underwriting agreement provides that the underwriters will purchase all of the shares of common stock if any of them are purchased. We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters and certain of their controlling persons against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and to contribute to payments that the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.

The underwriters are offering the shares of common stock subject to their acceptance of the shares of common stock from us and subject to prior sale. The underwriters reserve the right to withdraw, cancel or modify offers to the public and to reject orders in whole or in part.

Option to Purchase Additional Shares

We have granted to the underwriters an option, exercisable 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement, to purchase, from time to time, in whole or in part, up to an aggregate of             shares from us at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement, less underwriting discounts and commissions. If the underwriters exercise this option, each underwriter will be obligated, subject to certain conditions, to purchase a number of additional shares approximately proportionate to that underwriter’s initial purchase commitment as indicated in the table above.

Commission and Expenses

The underwriters have advised us that they propose to offer the shares of common stock to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement and to certain dealers, which may include the underwriters, at that price less a concession not in excess of $             per share of common stock. After the initial offering, the Representative may change the offering price and other selling terms.

 

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The following table shows the public offering price, the underwriting discounts and commissions that we are to pay the underwriters and the proceeds, before expenses, to us in connection with this offering. Such amounts are shown assuming both no exercise and full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.

 

     Per Share      Total  
     Without
Option to
Purchase
Additional
Shares
     With
Option to
Purchase
Additional
Shares
     Without
Option to
Purchase
Additional

Shares
     With
Option to
Purchase
Additional

Shares
 

Public offering price

   $                   $                   $                   $               

Underwriting discounts and commissions

   $      $      $      $  

Proceeds to us, before expenses

   $      $      $      $  

We estimate expenses payable by us in connection with this offering, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions referred to above, will be approximately $            . We have also agreed to reimburse the underwriters for up to $15,000 for their FINRA counsels’ fees and expenses, which reimbursed fee is deemed underwriting compensation for this offering by FINRA.

Listing

Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the trading symbol “ALDX.”

No Sales of Similar Securities

We and our directors and executive officers have agreed that, subject to certain exceptions, without the prior written consent of Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., we and they will not, during the period ending 90 days after the date of this prospectus supplement (the Lock-Up Period), directly or indirectly.

 

    offer, sell, assign, transfer, pledge, contract to sell, or otherwise dispose of, or announce the intention to otherwise dispose of, any shares of common stock or securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock;

 

    enter into any swap, hedge or similar agreement or arrangement that transfers in whole or in part, the economic risk of ownership of the common stock or securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock, whether now owned or hereafter acquired; or

 

    engage in any short selling of the common stock or securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock.

The exceptions to such agreements permit parties, among other things and subject to restrictions, to: (a) make certain gifts, (b) if the party is a corporation, partnership, limited liability company or other business entity, make transfers to any shareholders, partners, members of, or owners of similar equity interests in, the party, or to an affiliate of the party, if such transfer is not for value, (c) if the party is a corporation, partnership, limited liability company or other business entity, make transfers in connection with the sale or transfer of all of the party’s capital stock, partnership interests, membership interests or other similar equity interests, as the case may be, or all or substantially all of the party’s assets, in any such case not undertaken for the purpose of avoiding the restrictions imposed by the “lock-up” agreement, (d) enter into any trading plan providing for the sale of common stock that meets the requirements of Rule 10b5-1(c) under the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), provided that such plan does not provide for, or permit, the sale of any common stock during the “lock-up” period, and (e) transfers made pursuant to a third party tender offer, merger, consolidation or other similar transaction made to all holders of common stock involving a change of control of the company.

 

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Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. may, in its sole discretion and at any time or from time to time before the termination of the 90-day period release all or any portion of the securities subject to lock-up agreements.

Market Making, Stabilization and Other Transactions

The underwriters may make a market in the common stock as permitted by applicable laws and regulations. However, the underwriters are not obligated to do so, and the underwriters may discontinue any market-making activities at any time without notice in their sole discretion. Accordingly, no assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for the common stock, that you will be able to sell any of the common stock held by you at a particular time or that the prices that you receive when you sell will be favorable.

The underwriters have advised us that they, pursuant to Regulation M under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, may engage in short sale transactions, stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions or the imposition of penalty bids in connection with this offering. These activities may have the effect of stabilizing or maintaining the market price of the common stock at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. Establishing short sales positions may involve either “covered” short sales or “naked” short sales.

“Covered” short sales are sales made in an amount not greater than the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of our common stock in this offering. The underwriters may close out any covered short position by either exercising their option to purchase additional shares of purchasing shares of our common stock in the open market. In determining the source of shares to close out the covered short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through the option to purchase additional shares.

“Naked” short sales are sales in excess of the option to purchase additional shares of our common stock. The underwriters must close out any naked short position by purchasing shares in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the shares of our common stock in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in this offering.

A stabilizing bid is a bid for the purchase of shares of common stock on behalf of the underwriters for the purpose of fixing or maintaining the price of the common stock. A syndicate covering transaction is the bid for or the purchase of shares of common stock on behalf of the underwriters to reduce a short position incurred by the underwriters in connection with the offering. Similar to other purchase transactions, the underwriters’ purchases to cover the syndicate short sales may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of our common stock. As a result, the price of our common stock may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. A penalty bid is an arrangement permitting the underwriters to reclaim the selling concession otherwise accruing to a syndicate member in connection with the offering if the common stock originally sold by such syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction and therefore have not been effectively placed by such syndicate member.

Neither we, nor any of the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of our common stock. The underwriters are not obligated to engage in these activities and, if commenced, may end any of these activities at any time.

Passive Market Making

The underwriters may also engage in passive market making transactions in our common stock on the NASDAQ in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M during a period before the commencement of offers or

 

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sales of shares of our common stock in this offering and extending through the completion of distribution. A passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid of that security. However, if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, that bid must then be lowered when specified purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may cause the price of our common stock to be higher than the price that otherwise would exist in the open market in the absence of those transactions. The underwriters are not required to engage in passive market making and, if commenced, may end passive market making activities at any time.

Electronic Distribution

A prospectus in electronic format may be made available by e-mail or on the web sites or through online services maintained by one or more of the underwriters, selling group members (if any) or their affiliates. The underwriters may agree with us to allocate a specific number of shares of common stock for sale to online brokerage account holders. Any such allocation for online distributions will be made by the underwriters on the same basis as other allocations. Other than the prospectus in electronic format, the information on the underwriters’ web sites and any information contained in any other web site maintained by any of the underwriters is not part of this prospectus supplement, has not been approved and/or endorsed by us or the underwriters and should not be relied upon by investors.

Other Activities and Relationships

The underwriters and certain of their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in a wide range of activities for their own accounts and the accounts of customers, which may include, among other things, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, merchant banking, equity and fixed income sales, trading and research, derivatives, foreign exchange, futures, asset management, custody, clearance and securities lending. The underwriters and certain of their affiliates have, from time to time, performed, and may in the future perform, various investment banking and financial advisory services for us and our affiliates, for which they received or will receive customary fees and expenses.

In addition, in the ordinary course of its business, the underwriters and their respective affiliates may, directly or indirectly, hold long or short positions, trade and otherwise conduct such activities in or with respect to debt or equity securities and/or bank debt of, and/or derivative products. Such investment and securities activities may involve our securities and instruments. The underwriters and their respective affiliates may also make investment recommendations or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long or short positions in such securities and instruments. Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. is the agent under our Controlled Equity Offering SM Sales Agreement, dated June 2, 2017, pursuant to which we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $20 million through Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

Stamp Taxes

If you purchase shares of common stock offered in this prospectus supplement, you may be required to pay stamp taxes and other charges under the laws and practices of the country of purchase, in addition to the offering price listed on the cover page of this prospectus supplement.

Notice To Investors

Canada

This prospectus supplement constitutes an “exempt offering document” as defined in and for the purposes of applicable Canadian securities laws. No prospectus has been filed with any securities commission or similar

 

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regulatory authority in Canada in connection with the offer and sale of the common stock. No securities commission or similar regulatory authority in Canada has reviewed or in any way passed upon this prospectus supplement or on the merits of the common stock and any representation to the contrary is an offence.

Canadian investors are advised that this prospectus supplement has been prepared in reliance on section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (“NI 33-105”). Pursuant to section 3A.3 of NI 33-105, this prospectus supplement is exempt from the requirement that the Company and the underwriter(s) provide investors with certain conflicts of interest disclosure pertaining to “connected issuer” and/or “related issuer” relationships that may exist between the Company and the underwriter(s) as would otherwise be required pursuant to subsection 2.1(1) of NI 33-105.

Resale Restrictions

The offer and sale of the common stock in Canada is being made on a private placement basis only and is exempt from the requirement that the Company prepares and files a prospectus under applicable Canadian securities laws. Any resale of the common stock acquired by a Canadian investor in this offering must be made in accordance with applicable Canadian securities laws, which may vary depending on the relevant jurisdiction, and which may require resales to be made in accordance with Canadian prospectus requirements, pursuant to a statutory exemption from the prospectus requirements, in a transaction exempt from the prospectus requirements or otherwise under a discretionary exemption from the prospectus requirements granted by the applicable local Canadian securities regulatory authority. These resale restrictions may under certain circumstances apply to resales of the common stock outside of Canada.

Representations of Purchasers

Each Canadian investor who purchases the common stock will be deemed to have represented to the Company and the underwriter(s) that the investor (i) is purchasing the common stock as principal, or is deemed to be purchasing as principal in accordance with applicable Canadian securities laws, for investment only and not with a view to resale or redistribution; (ii) is an “accredited investor” as such term is defined in section 1.1 of National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions (“NI 45-106”) or, in Ontario, as such term is defined in section 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario); and (iii) is a “permitted client” as such term is defined in section 1.1 of National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations .

Taxation and Eligibility for Investment

Any discussion of taxation and related matters contained in this prospectus supplement does not purport to be a comprehensive description of all of the tax considerations that may be relevant to a Canadian investor when deciding to purchase the common stock and, in particular, does not address any Canadian tax considerations. No representation or warranty is hereby made as to the tax consequences to a resident, or deemed resident, of Canada of an investment in the common stock or with respect to the eligibility of the common stock for investment by such investor under relevant Canadian federal and provincial legislation and regulations.

Rights of Action for Damages or Rescission

Securities legislation in certain of the Canadian jurisdictions provides certain purchasers of securities pursuant to an offering memorandum (such as this prospectus supplement), including where the distribution involves an “eligible foreign security” as such term is defined in Ontario Securities Commission Rule 45-501 Ontario Prospectus and Registration Exemptions and in Multilateral Instrument 45-107 Listing Representation and Statutory Rights of Action Disclosure Exemptions , as applicable, with a remedy for damages or rescission, or both, in addition to any other rights they may have at law, where the offering memorandum, or other offering document that constitutes an offering memorandum, and any amendment thereto, contains a “misrepresentation” as defined under applicable Canadian securities laws. These remedies, or notice with respect to these remedies,

 

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must be exercised or delivered, as the case may be, by the purchaser within the time limits prescribed under, and are subject to limitations and defenses under, applicable Canadian securities legislation. In addition, these remedies are in addition to and without derogation from any other right or remedy available at law to the investor.

Language of Documents

Upon receipt of this document, each Canadian investor hereby confirms that it has expressly requested that all documents evidencing or relating in any way to the sale of the securities described herein (including for greater certainty any purchase confirmation or any notice) be drawn up in the English language only. Par la réception de ce document, chaque investisseur Canadien confirme par les présentes qu’il a expressément exigé que tous les documents faisant foi ou se rapportant de quelque manière que ce soit à la vente des valeurs mobilières décrites aux présentes (incluant, pour plus de certitude, toute confirmation d’achat ou tout avis) soient rédigés en anglais seulement.

Australia

This prospectus is not a disclosure document for the purposes of Australia’s Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) of Australia, or Corporations Act, has not been lodged with the Australian Securities & Investments Commission and is only directed to the categories of exempt persons set out below. Accordingly, if you receive this prospectus in Australia:

You confirm and warrant that you are either:

 

    a “sophisticated investor” under section 708(8)(a) or (b) of the Corporations Act;

 

    a “sophisticated investor” under section 708(8)(c) or (d) of the Corporations Act and that you have provided an accountant’s certificate to the company which complies with the requirements of section 708(8)(c)(i) or (ii) of the Corporations Act and related regulations before the offer has been made; or

 

    a “professional investor” within the meaning of section 708(11)(a) or (b) of the Corporations Act.

To the extent that you are unable to confirm or warrant that you are an exempt sophisticated investor or professional investor under the Corporations Act any offer made to you under this prospectus is void and incapable of acceptance.

You warrant and agree that you will not offer any of the shares issued to you pursuant to this prospectus for resale in Australia within 12 months of those securities being issued unless any such resale offer is exempt from the requirement to issue a disclosure document under section 708 of the Corporations Act.

European Economic Area

In relation to each member state of the European Economic Area which has implemented the Prospectus Directive, each referred to herein as a Relevant Member State, with effect from and including the date on which the Prospectus Directive is implemented in that Relevant Member State, referred to herein as the Relevant Implementation Date, no offer of any securities which are the subject of the offering contemplated by this prospectus has been or will be made to the public in that Relevant Member State other than any offer where a prospectus has been or will be published in relation to such securities that has been approved by the competent authority in that Relevant Member State or, where appropriate, approved in another Relevant Member State and notified to the relevant competent authority in that Relevant Member State in accordance with the Prospectus Directive, except that with effect from and including the Relevant Implementation Date, an offer of such securities may be made to the public in that Relevant Member State:

 

    to any legal entity which is a “qualified investor” as defined in the Prospectus Directive;

 

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    to fewer than 100 or, if the Relevant Member State has implemented the relevant provision of the 2010 PD Amending Directive, 150, natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Directive), as permitted under the Prospectus Directive, subject to obtaining the prior consent of the representatives of the underwriters for any such offer; or

 

    in any other circumstances falling within Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive,

provided that no such offer of securities shall require the Company or any of the underwriters to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 16 of the Prospectus Directive.

For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any securities in any Relevant Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the securities to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe the securities, as the same may be varied in that Relevant Member State by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in that Relevant Member State and the expression “Prospectus Directive” means Directive 2003/71/EC (and amendments thereto, including the 2010 PD Amending Directive, to the extent implemented in the Relevant Member State), and includes any relevant implementing measure in the Relevant Member State and the expression “2010 PD Amending Directive” means Directive 2010/73/EU.

Hong Kong

No securities have been offered or sold, and no securities may be offered or sold, in Hong Kong, by means of any document, other than to persons whose ordinary business is to buy or sell shares or debentures, whether as principal or agent; or to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571) of Hong Kong and any rules made under that Ordinance; or in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong or which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the Companies Ordinance (Cap.32) of Hong Kong. No document, invitation or advertisement relating to the securities has been issued or may be issued or may be in the possession of any person for the purpose of issue (in each case whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere), which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to securities which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571) of Hong Kong and any rules made under that Ordinance.

This prospectus has not been registered with the Registrar of Companies in Hong Kong. Accordingly, this prospectus may not be issued, circulated or distributed in Hong Kong, and the securities may not be offered for subscription to members of the public in Hong Kong. Each person acquiring the securities will be required, and is deemed by the acquisition of the securities, to confirm that he is aware of the restriction on offers of the securities described in this prospectus and the relevant offering documents and that he is not acquiring, and has not been offered any securities in circumstances that contravene any such restrictions.

Japan

The offering has not been and will not be registered under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law of Japan (Law No. 25 of 1948 of Japan, as amended), or FIEL, and the Initial Purchaser will not offer or sell any securities, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the benefit of, any resident of Japan (which term as used herein means, unless otherwise provided herein, any person resident in Japan, including any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan), or to others for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to a resident of Japan, except pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of, and otherwise in compliance with, the FIEL and any other applicable laws, regulations and ministerial guidelines of Japan.

 

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Singapore

This prospectus has not been and will not be lodged or registered with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or the invitation for subscription or purchase of the securities may not be issued, circulated or distributed, nor may the securities be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to the public or any member of the public in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore, or the SFA, (ii) to a relevant person as defined under Section 275(2), or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions, specified in Section 275 of the SFA, or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of any other applicable provision of the SFA.

Where the securities are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is:

 

    a corporation (which is not an accredited investor as defined under Section 4A of the SFA) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or

 

    a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary is an accredited investor,

shares, debentures and units of shares and debentures of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest in that trust shall not be transferable for six months after that corporation or that trust has acquired the Offer Shares under Section 275 of the SFA except:

 

    to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the SFA or to a relevant person defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA, or to any person pursuant to an offer that is made on terms that such shares, debentures and units of shares and debentures of that corporation or such rights and interest in that trust are acquired at a consideration of not less than $200,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency) for each transaction, whether such amount is to be paid for in cash or by exchange of securities or other assets, and further for corporations, in accordance with the conditions, specified in Section 275 of the SFA;

 

    where no consideration is given for the transfer; or

 

    where the transfer is by operation of law.

Switzerland

The securities may not be publicly offered in Switzerland and will not be listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange, or SIX, or on any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. This prospectus has been prepared without regard to the disclosure standards for issuance prospectuses under art. 652a or art. 1156 of the Swiss Code of Obligations or the disclosure standards for listing prospectuses under art. 27 ff. of the SIX Listing Rules or the listing rules of any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. Neither this prospectus nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the securities or the offering may be publicly distributed or otherwise made publicly available in Switzerland.

Neither this prospectus nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the offering, the Company or the securities have been or will be filed with or approved by any Swiss regulatory authority. In particular, this prospectus will not be filed with, and the offer of securities will not be supervised by, the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority FINMA, or FINMA, and the offer of securities has not been and will not be authorized under the Swiss Federal Act on Collective Investment Schemes, or CISA. The investor protection afforded to acquirers of interests in collective investment schemes under the CISA does not extend to acquirers of securities.

 

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Israel

This document does not constitute a prospectus under the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968, or the Securities Law, and has not been filed with or approved by the Israel Securities Authority. In the State of Israel, this document is being distributed only to, and is directed only at, and any offer of the shares is directed only at, investors listed in the first addendum, or the Addendum, to the Israeli Securities Law, consisting primarily of joint investment in trust funds, provident funds, insurance companies, banks, portfolio managers, investment advisors, members of the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, underwriters, venture capital funds, entities with equity in excess of NIS 50 million and “qualified individuals”, each as defined in the Addendum (as it may be amended from time to time), collectively referred to as qualified investors (in each case purchasing for their own account or, where permitted under the Addendum, for the accounts of their clients who are investors listed in the Addendum). Qualified investors will be required to submit written confirmation that they fall within the scope of the Addendum, are aware of the meaning of same and agree to it.

United Kingdom

This prospectus is only being distributed to, and is only directed at, persons in the United Kingdom that are qualified investors (as defined in the Prospectus Directive) that are also (i) investment professionals falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended, referred to herein as the Order, and/or (ii) high net worth entities falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order and other persons to whom it may lawfully be communicated. Each such person is referred to herein as a Relevant Person.

This prospectus and its contents are confidential and should not be distributed, published or reproduced (in whole or in part) or disclosed by recipients to any other persons in the United Kingdom. Any person in the United Kingdom that is not a Relevant Person should not act or rely on this document or any of its contents.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the shares of common stock being offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. As of June 30, 2017, certain partners and employees of Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP are the beneficial owners of 1,020 shares of our common stock. Certain intellectual property matters will be passed upon for us by Dechert LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Certain legal matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for the underwriters by Cooley LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

The financial statements as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2016 incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, constituting a part of the registration statement on Form S-3 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered by this prospectus supplement. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, which are part of the registration statement, omits certain information, exhibits, schedules and undertakings set forth in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. For further information pertaining to us and the securities offered in this prospectus supplement, reference is made to that registration statement and the exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus as to the contents or provisions of any documents referred to in this prospectus are not necessarily complete, and in each instance where a copy of the document has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, reference is made to the exhibit for a more complete description of the matters involved.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings can be read and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the public reference room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Also, the SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us.

Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “ALDX.” General information about our company, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments and exhibits to those reports, are available free of charge through our website at www.aldeyra.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC. Information on, or than can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated into this prospectus supplement or other securities filings and is not a part of these filings.

 

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus supplement the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information we incorporate by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede some of this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), including filings made after the date of the initial registration statement, until we sell all of the shares covered by this prospectus supplement or the sale of shares by us pursuant to this prospectus supplement is terminated. In no event, however, will any of the information that we furnish to, pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K (including exhibits related thereto) or other applicable SEC rules, rather than file with, the SEC be incorporated by reference or otherwise be included herein, unless such information is expressly incorporated herein by a reference in such furnished Current Report on Form 8-K or other furnished document. The documents we incorporate by reference are:

 

    our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2017 (the Form 10-K);

 

    the information contained in our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A for our 2017 annual meeting of stockholders, filed with the SEC on April 24, 2017, to the extent incorporated by reference in Part III of the Form 10-K;

 

    our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2017 and June 30, 2017, filed with the SEC on May 15, 2017 and August 7 2017, respectively;

 

    our current reports on Form 8-K or Form 8-K/A filed with the SEC on January 25, 2017, February 13, 2017, February 14, 2017, February 17, 2017, April 6, 2017, June 2, 2017, June 9, 2017, June 14, 2017 (Item 8.01 and Exhibit 99.2 of Item 9.01 only), June 15, 2017 and September 12, 2017; and

 

    the description of our common stock contained in the registration statement on Form 8-A (File no. 001-36332), filed on March 4, 2014, and all amendments and reports updating such description.

Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

We will provide each person to whom a prospectus is delivered a copy of all of the information that has been incorporated by reference in this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may obtain copies of these filings, at no cost, through the “Investor Relations” section of our website (www.aldeyra.com) and you may request a copy of these filings (other than an exhibit to any filing unless we have specifically incorporated that exhibit by reference into the filing), at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

131 Hartwell Avenue, Suite 320

Lexington, MA 02421

(781) 761-4904

Information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated into this prospectus or other securities filings and is not a part of these filings.

 

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PROSPECTUS

$100,000,000

 

LOGO

Preferred Stock

Common Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

 

 

From time to time, we may offer and sell shares of preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or warrants to purchase debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or any combination of these securities, either separately or in units, in one or more offerings in amounts, at prices and on terms that we will determine at the time of the offering. The debt securities and warrants may be convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for preferred stock, common stock or debt securities and the preferred stock may be convertible into or exchangeable for common stock. The aggregate initial offering price of all securities sold by us under this prospectus will not exceed $100,000,000.

Each time we offer securities, we will provide you with specific terms of the securities offered in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and the additional information described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” carefully before you invest in any securities.

The securities offered by this prospectus may be sold directly by us to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers. We will set forth the names of any underwriters or agents in an accompanying prospectus supplement. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “ALDX”. The last reported sale price of our common stock on August 21, 2015 was $7.41 per share.

 

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES A HIGH DEGREE OF RISKS. SEE “ RISK FACTORS ” ON PAGE 6 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND IN THE OTHER DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE IN THIS PROSPECTUS AND THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT TO READ ABOUT FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE BUYING OUR SECURITIES.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is September 1, 2015.


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     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     1  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

     1  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     3  

THE COMPANY

     5  

OUR CORPORATE INFORMATION

     5  

RISK FACTORS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

     38  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     51  

RATIO OF FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERENCE DIVIDENDS TO EARNINGS

     51  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     51  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     51  

LEGAL MATTERS

     52  

EXPERTS

     53  

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information in addition to or different from that contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. We will be offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, the shares only in jurisdictions whether offers and sales are permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of those documents.

Unless the context otherwise requires, throughout this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, the words “Aldeyra” “we,” “us,” the “registrant” or the “company” refer to Aldeyra Therapeutics, Inc.; the term “securities” refers collectively to our preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or warrants to purchase preferred stock, common stock or debt securities, or any combination of the foregoing securities.


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Using this process, we may, from time to time, sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offering transactions up to a total dollar amount of $100,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell any securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the specific terms of that particular offering. Each such prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent that any statements that we make in a prospectus supplement are inconsistent with statements made in this prospectus, the statements made in this prospectus will be deemed modified or superseded by those made in the prospectus supplement. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, includes all material information relating to the offering of the securities described in this prospectus. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sales of securities. To obtain additional information that may be important to you, you should read the exhibits filed by us with the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or our other filings with the SEC. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and the additional information described below under “Where You Can Find More Information” before making any investment decision with respect to the securities offered hereby.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered by this prospectus. This prospectus, which is part of the registration statement, omits certain information, exhibits, schedules and undertakings set forth in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. For further information pertaining to us and the securities offered in this prospectus, reference is made to that registration statement and the exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus as to the contents or provisions of any documents referred to in this prospectus are not necessarily complete, and in each instance where a copy of the document has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, reference is made to the exhibit for a more complete description of the matters involved.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings can be read and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the public reference room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Also, the SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us.

Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “ALDX.” General information about our company, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments and exhibits to those reports, are available free of charge through our website at www.aldeyra.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC. Information on, or than can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated into this prospectus or other securities filings and is not a part of these filings.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information we incorporate by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede some of this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of


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the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), including filings made after the date of the initial registration statement, until we sell all of the shares covered by this prospectus or the sale of shares by us pursuant to this prospectus is terminated. In no event, however, will any of the information that we furnish to, pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K (including exhibits related thereto) or other applicable SEC rules, rather than file with, the SEC be incorporated by reference or otherwise be included herein, unless such information is expressly incorporated herein by a reference in such furnished Current Report on Form 8-K or other furnished document. The documents we incorporate by reference are:

 

    our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014 filed with the SEC on March 23, 2015;

 

    our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2015 and June 30, 2015 filed with the SEC on May 14, 2015 and August 14, 2015, respectively;

 

    our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on April 17, 2015 (excluding those portions that are not incorporated by reference into our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014);

 

    our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 2, 2015, January 13, 2015, January 15, 2015, January 20, 2015, January 22, 2015, March 2, 2015, March 13, 2015, March 17, 2015, March 19, 2015, May 13, 2015, June 9, 2015, and August 11, 2015; and

 

    the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-36332) filed under the Exchange Act on March 4, 2014, including any amendment or reports filed for the purpose of updating such descriptions.

Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

We will provide each person to whom a prospectus is delivered a copy of all of the information that has been incorporated by reference in this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may obtain copies of these filings, at no cost, through the “Investor Relations” section of our website (www.aldeyra.com) and you may request a copy of these filings (other than an exhibit to any filing unless we have specifically incorporated that exhibit by reference into the filing), at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

131 Hartwell Avenue, Suite 320

Lexington, MA 02421

(781) 761-4904

Information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated into this prospectus or other securities filings and is not a part of these filings.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business.” In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “might,” “will,” “objective,” “intend,” “should,” “could,” “can,” “would,” “expect,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “project,” “target,” “design,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “plan” or the negative of these terms, and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

    the timing of enrollment, commencement and completion of our clinical trials;

 

    the timing and success of preclinical studies and clinical trials conducted by us and our development partners;

 

    the ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our clinical trials and product candidates, and the labeling for any approved products;

 

    the scope, progress, expansion, and costs of developing and commercializing our product candidates;

 

    the size and growth of the potential markets for our product candidates and the ability to serve those markets;

 

    our expectations regarding our expenses and revenue, the sufficiency of our cash resources and needs for additional financing;

 

    the rate and degree of market acceptance of any of our product candidates;

 

    our expectations regarding competition;

 

    our anticipated growth strategies;

 

    our ability to attract or retain key personnel;

 

    our ability to establish and maintain development partnerships;

 

    our expectations regarding federal, state and foreign regulatory requirements;

 

    regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

    our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates;

 

    the anticipated trends and challenges in our business and the market in which we operate; and

 

    the use or sufficiency of our cash or cash equivalents.

Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

Any forward-looking statement made by us in this prospectus speaks only as of the date on which it is made. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these statements publicly, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.

We discuss many of these risks in this prospectus in greater detail under the heading “Risk Factors.” Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of this prospectus.

 

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Unless required by United States federal securities laws, we do not intend to update any of these forward-looking statements to reflect circumstances or events that occur after the statement is made.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

This prospectus includes statistical and other industry and market data that we obtained from industry publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Industry publications and third-party research, surveys and studies generally indicate that their information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. While we believe these industry publications and third-party research, surveys and studies are reliable, we have not independently verified such data.

All written and verbal forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We caution investors not to rely too heavily on the forward-looking statements we make or that are made on our behalf. We undertake no obligation, and specifically decline any obligation, to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

In addition, you should refer to the section of this prospectus entitled “Risk Factors” as well as the documents we have incorporated by reference for a discussion of other important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all.

 

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THE COMPANY

We are a biotechnology company focused primarily on the development of products to treat immune-mediated, inflammatory, orphan, and other diseases that are related to free aldehydes, a naturally occurring toxic chemical species. We discovered and are developing NS2, a novel product candidate that is designed to trap and allow for the degradation of free aldehydes. NS2 has been tested in a variety of in vitro and preclinical models, and has demonstrated efficacy in trapping free aldehydes, diminishing inflammation, reducing healing time, protecting key cellular constituents from aldehyde damage, and lowering the potential for scarring or fibrosis. NS2 has completed a variety of toxicity studies in animals and appears generally safe and well-tolerated.

We have evaluated NS2 in a Phase I clinical trial in 48 healthy volunteers where NS2 was observed to be safe and well tolerated when administered as an eye drop up to four times per day over seven days. In December 2014, we filed two Investigational New Drug (IND) applications for Phase II clinical trials in Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome (SLS) and noninfectious anterior uveitis, which were initiated in March of 2015. In July 2015, we filed a Clinical Trial Authorization with Health Canada for a Phase IIa clinical trial of NS2 in allergic conjunctivitis. We expect our Phase II clinical trial in SLS to be fully enrolled by the end of the first quarter of 2016, and our Phase II clinical trial of NS2 in non-infectious anterior uveitis to complete enrollment in the second quarter of 2016. We expect our Phase IIa clinical trial of allergic conjunctivitis to complete enrollment in 2016. These timelines could be subject to an adjustment to a slightly later time point if the recruitment rate is below our projected patient enrollment for the applicable trial.

In addition, we are developing systemic formulations of NS2. In 2016, we plan to commence Phase I safety and tolerability clinical testing of systemic formulations of NS2 in preparation for potential Phase IIa clinical trials in SLS, succinic semi-aldehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (a neurologic disease caused by mutations in an aldehyde dehydrogenase that leads to high levels of toxic aldehydes), and autoimmune crises. We are also in the early stages of developing aldehyde traps different from NS2 that have the potential to treat diseases other than those described above.

We have no products approved for sale, and we have not generated any revenue from product sales or other arrangements. We have primarily funded our operations through the sale of our convertible preferred stock, common stock, convertible promissory notes, warrants and borrowings under our loan and security agreements. In May 2014, we closed our initial public offering whereby we received net proceeds of approximately $10.1 million, after underwriter discounts, expenses and commissions, through the sale of 1,500,000 shares of our common stock at $8.00 per share. In January 2015, we received net proceeds of approximately $9.0 million, after placement agent fees and expenses from two private placements of common stock and warrants to purchase common stock. In addition, in May 2015, we raised approximately $19.6 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses through the issuance and sale of 2,822,500 shares of common stock in a follow-on public offering, including shares sold pursuant to the underwriter’s exercise of their option to purchase additional shares of common stock.

OUR CORPORATE INFORMATION

Aldeyra was incorporated in Delaware in 2004. Our principal executive offices are located at 131 Hartwell Avenue, Suite 320 Lexington, MA 02421, and our telephone number is (781) 761-4904. Our website address is www.aldeyra.com. We do not incorporate the information on our website into this prospectus and you should not consider it part of this prospectus.

“Aldeyra Therapeutics” and our design logo are our trademarks. This prospectus may also include other registered and unregistered trademarks of Aldeyra Therapeutics, Inc. and other persons.

 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described under “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and all of the other information contained in this prospectus, and incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes, before investing in our securities. If any of the possible events described below or in those sections actually occur, our business, business prospects, cash flow, results of operations or financial condition could be harmed, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you might lose all or part of your investment in our securities. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our operations and results.

Risks Related to our Business

We have incurred significant operating losses since inception, and we expect to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future. We may never become profitable or, if achieved, be able to sustain profitability.

We have incurred significant operating losses since we were founded in 2004 and expect to incur significant losses for the next several years as we continue our clinical trial and development programs for NS2 and our other product candidates. Net loss attributable to common stockholders for the three months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 was approximately $2.2 million and $5.3 million, respectively. Net loss attributable to common stockholders for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 was approximately $4.4 million and $5.1 million, respectively. As of June 30, 2015, we had total stockholders’ equity of $31.5 million. Losses have resulted principally from costs incurred in our clinical trials, research and development programs and from our general and administrative expenses. In the future, we intend to continue to conduct research and development, clinical testing, regulatory compliance activities and, if NS2 or any of our other product candidates is approved, sales and marketing activities that, together with anticipated general and administrative expenses, will likely result in our incurring further significant losses for the next several years.

We currently generate no revenue from sales, and we may never be able to commercialize NS2 or our other product candidates. We do not currently have the required approvals to market any of our product candidates and we may never receive them. We may not be profitable even if we or any of our future development partners succeed in commercializing any of our product candidates. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with developing and commercializing our product candidates, we are unable to predict the extent of any future losses or when we will become profitable, if at all.

Our business is dependent in large part on the success of a single product candidate, NS2. We cannot be certain that we will be able to obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize, NS2.

Our product candidates are in the early stage of development and will require additional preclinical studies, substantial clinical development and testing, and regulatory approval prior to commercialization. We have not yet completed development of any product. We have only one product candidate that has been the focus of significant development: NS2, a novel small molecule chemical entity that is believed to trap and allow for the degradation of free aldehydes, toxic chemical species suspected to cause and exacerbate numerous diseases in humans and animals. We are largely dependent on successful continued development and ultimate regulatory approval of this product candidate for our future business success. We have invested, and will continue to invest, a significant portion of our time and financial resources in the development of NS2. We will need to raise sufficient funds for, and successfully enroll and complete, our current and planned clinical trials of NS2. The future regulatory and commercial success of this product candidate is subject to a number of risks, including the following:

 

    we may not have sufficient financial and other resources to complete the necessary clinical trials for NS2;

 

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    we may not be able to timely finalize the design or formulation of any product candidate or demonstrate that a formulation of our product candidate will be stable for commercially reasonable time periods;

 

    we may not be able to provide evidence of safety and efficacy for NS2;

 

    the results of later phases of our clinical trials may not confirm the results of our Phase I trial of NS2 as an eye drop in healthy volunteers, particularly because the safety of NS2 has not been confirmed in a diseased population nor has NS2 been administered to humans in any other dosage form other than an eye drop and a topical dermatologic formulation;

 

    there may be variability in patients, adjustments to clinical trial procedures and inclusion of additional clinical trial sites;

 

    the results of our clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical or clinical significance for marketing approval required by the FDA, or comparable foreign regulatory bodies;

 

    patients in our clinical trials may suffer other adverse effects or die for reasons that may or may not be related to NS2;

 

    if approved for certain diseases, NS2 will compete with well-established products already approved for marketing by the FDA, including corticosteroids and other agents that have demonstrated varying levels of efficacy in some of the diseases for which we may attempt to develop NS2; and

 

    we may not be able to obtain, maintain or enforce our patents and other intellectual property rights.

Of the large number of drugs in development in the pharmaceutical industry, only a small percentage result in the submission of a New Drug Application (NDA) to the FDA and even fewer are approved for commercialization. Furthermore, even if we do receive regulatory approval to market NS2, any such approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which we may market the product. Accordingly, even if we are able to obtain the requisite financing to continue to fund our development programs, we cannot assure you that NS2 will be successfully developed or commercialized. If we or any of our future development partners are unable to develop, or obtain regulatory approval for or, if approved, successfully commercialize, NS2, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to continue our business.

Because we have limited experience developing clinical-stage compounds, there is a limited amount of information about us upon which you can evaluate our product candidates and business prospects.

We commenced our first clinical trial in 2010, and we have limited experience developing clinical-stage compounds upon which you can evaluate our business and prospects. In addition, as an early-stage clinical development company, we have limited experience in conducting clinical trials, and we have never conducted clinical trials of a size required for regulatory approvals. Further, we have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully overcome many of the risks and uncertainties frequently encountered by companies in new and rapidly evolving fields, particularly in the biopharmaceutical area. For example, to execute our business plan we will need to successfully:

 

    execute our product candidate development activities, including successfully completing our product design and formulation and our clinical trial programs;

 

    obtain required regulatory approvals for our product candidates;

 

    manage our spending as costs and expenses increase due to the performance and completion of clinical trials, attempting to obtain regulatory approvals, manufacturing and commercialization;

 

    secure substantial additional funding;

 

    develop and maintain successful strategic relationships;

 

    build and maintain a strong intellectual property portfolio;

 

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    build and maintain appropriate clinical, sales, distribution, and marketing capabilities on our own or through third parties; and

 

    gain broad market acceptance for our product candidates.

If we are unsuccessful in accomplishing these objectives, we may not be able to develop product candidates, raise capital, expand our business, or continue our operations.

The scientific rationale for our Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome (SLS) clinical program does not necessarily predict the clinical success of NS2 in SLS or other diseases.

SLS is a rare disease afflicting an estimated 1 in 250,000 people worldwide, equivalent to approximately 1,000 patients in the United States and a larger number in Europe. SLS is caused by genetic mutations in an enzyme, Fatty Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (FALDH) that converts long-chain aldehydes into fatty acids. In addition to manifesting what is believed to be severe aldehyde toxicity, SLS patients also have elevated levels of fatty alcohols and may manifest diminished levels of fatty acids.

The dermal pathology of SLS is thought to be due to aldehyde-mediated damage of lipids (fats) that contribute to the formation of the dermal moisture barrier. As a result, SLS patients are thought to lose water from skin, leading to compensatory mechanisms that include proliferation of the superficial layers of skin that may be only partially effective in preventing water loss. Increased levels of skin proliferation in SLS patients lead to ichthyosis, a severe skin disorder characterized by plaques and scales, thickening, redness, dryness, inflammation and pruritus (itching).

NS2 traps aldehydes and has been shown to prevent fatty aldehyde-mediated modification of lipids in vitro , in human skin cells and in cells that have been genetically modified to lack FALDH. Thus, NS2 may be partially or wholly effective in preventing and treating ichthyosis or other dermal symptoms, signs, or pathologies in SLS. However, the proposed mechanism of action of NS2 in SLS has not been demonstrated in humans. Further, our assumptions about the pathogenesis of skin disease in SLS patients may not be accurate. For instance, SLS skin disease may be caused by elevated fatty alcohol levels or decreased fatty acid levels, neither of which NS2 is predicted to affect directly.

In addition, the presumed mechanisms of aldehyde-mediated inflammation are distinct from the presumed aldehydemediated pathology in SLS, and the outcome of clinical trials of NS2 in SLS is unlikely to predict the outcome of clinical trials with NS2 in inflammatory diseases.

The results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials are not always predictive of future results. Any product candidate we or any of our future development partners advance into clinical trials, including NS2, may not have favorable results in later clinical trials, if any, or receive regulatory approval.

Drug development has inherent risk. We or any of our future development partners will be required to demonstrate through adequate and well-controlled clinical trials that our product candidates are safe and effective, with a favorable benefit-risk profile, for use in their target indications before we can seek regulatory approvals for their commercial sale. Drug development is a long, expensive and uncertain process, and delay or failure can occur at any stage of development, including after commencement of any of our clinical trials. In addition, success in early clinical trials does not mean that later clinical trials will be successful because product candidates in later-stage clinical trials may fail to demonstrate sufficient safety or efficacy despite having progressed through initial clinical testing. Furthermore, our future trials will need to demonstrate sufficient safety and efficacy for approval by regulatory authorities in larger patient populations. Companies frequently suffer significant setbacks in advanced clinical trials, even after earlier clinical trials have shown promising results. In addition, only a small percentage of drugs under development result in the submission of an NDA to the FDA and even fewer are approved for commercialization.

 

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Because NS2 and our other product candidates are, to our knowledge, new chemical entities, it is difficult to predict the time and cost of development and our ability to successfully complete clinical development of these product candidates and obtain the necessary regulatory approvals for commercialization.

Our product candidates are, to our knowledge, new chemical entities, and unexpected problems related to such new technology may arise that can cause us to delay, suspend or terminate our development efforts. NS2 administered as an eye drop has completed a Phase I clinical trial in healthy volunteers. Prior to our SLS Phase II clinical trial which commenced in March 2015, NS2 had not been administered to humans by any other route. Further, NS2 has not demonstrated efficacy in humans for any disease. Because NS2 is a novel chemical entity with limited use in humans, short and long-term safety, as well as prospects for efficacy, are poorly understood and difficult to predict due to our and regulatory agencies’ lack of experience with them. Regulatory approval of new product candidates such as NS2 can be more expensive and take longer than approval for other more well-known or extensively studied pharmaceutical or biopharmaceutical product candidates.

Aldehyde trapping is an unproven approach, the safety and efficacy of which has not been demonstrated in humans.

Aldehydes are thought to be mediators of inflammation and other pathology. However, we are aware of only a limited number of attempts to lower aldehyde levels and modulate disease in animals or humans. Thus, there is only moderate justification for the approach of lowering aldehyde levels to treat disease. Despite evidence suggestive of benefit in animal models, clinical trials may indicate that aldehyde trapping has no effect or negative effects in humans on the diseases we intend to test. Animal studies may not predict safety or efficacy in humans.

Our dermatologic topical formulation of NS2 is unlikely to affect other clinical manifestations of SLS, which may decrease the likelihood of regulatory and commercial acceptance.

While the primary day-to-day complaint of SLS patients and their caregivers are symptoms associated with severe skin disease, SLS patients also manifest varying degrees of delay in mental development, spasticity, seizures and retinal disease. Due to expected low systemic exposure of NS2 when administered topically to the skin, it is unlikely that NS2 will significantly affect the non-dermatologic conditions of SLS. Lack of effect in neurologic and ocular manifestations of SLS may negatively impact regulatory discussions with the FDA and may also negatively impact reimbursement, pricing and commercial acceptance of NS2, if it is approved.

The FDA or other regulatory agencies may prohibit us from initiating clinical trials that are necessary for demonstrating drug safety and efficacy in patients.

NS2 and the activities associated with its development and potential commercialization, including its testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, recordkeeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution, are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory agencies in the United States and by comparable authorities in other jurisdictions.

We are not permitted to initiate clinical trials of a new drug under an IND in the United States until the FDA has no objection to the initial IND submission. To date, we have completed one Phase I clinical trial for NS2 administered as an eye drop in healthy volunteers. In 2014, we filed two IND applications to initiate a Phase II clinical trial in SLS and a Phase II trial in noninfectious anterior uveitis, and have subsequently initiated clinical trials in those indications. In July 2015, we filed a Clinical Trial Authorization with Health Canada for a Phase IIa clinical trial of NS2 in patients with allergic conjunctivitis.

We will have to submit separate INDs for each additional indication that we intend to study, which could mean additional delays in the commencement of each of the related trials and the performance of additional preclinical studies. We have not demonstrated efficacy of NS2 in any patient population.

 

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There is no guarantee that future trials will be allowed by the FDA or the applicable foreign regulatory body to proceed or generate successful results, or that regulators will agree with our assessment of the clinical trials for NS2. In addition, we expect to rely on consultants and third party contract research organizations to assist us with regulatory filings and the conduct of our clinical trials. The FDA and other regulators have substantial discretion and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our current data is insufficient for clinical trial initiation and require additional clinical trials, or preclinical or other studies.

NS2 and our other product candidates are subject to extensive regulation, compliance with which is costly and time consuming, and such regulation may cause unanticipated delays, or prevent the receipt of the required approvals to commercialize our product candidates.

The clinical development, manufacturing, labeling, storage, record-keeping, advertising, promotion, import, export, marketing, and distribution of our product candidates are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA in the United States and by comparable authorities in foreign markets. In the United States, we are not permitted to market our product candidates until we receive regulatory approval from the FDA. The process of obtaining regulatory approval is expensive, often takes many years, and can vary substantially based upon the type, complexity, and novelty of the products involved, as well as the target indications, and patient population. Approval policies or regulations may change and the FDA has substantial discretion in the drug approval process, including the ability to delay, limit, or deny approval of a product candidate for many reasons. Despite the time and expense invested in clinical development of product candidates, regulatory approval is never guaranteed.

The FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities can delay, limit, or deny approval of a product candidate for many reasons, including:

 

    such authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our or any of our future development partners’ clinical trials;

 

    we or any of our future development partners may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA or other regulatory authorities that a product candidate is safe and effective for any indication;

 

    such authorities may not accept clinical data from trials which are conducted at clinical facilities or in countries where the standard of care is potentially different from the United States;

 

    the results of clinical trials may not demonstrate the safety or efficacy required by such authorities for approval;

 

    we or any of our future development partners may be unable to demonstrate that a product candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;

 

    such authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;

 

    such authorities may find deficiencies in the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we or any of our future development partners contract for clinical and commercial supplies; or

 

    the approval policies or regulations of such authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our or any of our future development partners’ clinical data insufficient for approval.

With respect to foreign markets, approval procedures vary among countries and, in addition to the aforementioned risks, can involve additional product testing, administrative review periods and agreements with pricing authorities. In addition, events raising questions about the safety of certain marketed pharmaceuticals may result in increased cautiousness by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities in reviewing new drugs based on safety, efficacy or other regulatory considerations and may result in significant delays in obtaining regulatory approvals. Any delay in obtaining, or inability to obtain, applicable regulatory approvals would prevent us or any of our future development partners from commercializing our product candidates.

 

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Any termination or suspension of, or delays in the commencement or completion of, our planned clinical trials could result in increased costs to us, delay or limit our ability to generate revenue and adversely affect our commercial prospects.

Before we can initiate clinical trials in the United States for our product candidates, we must submit the results of preclinical testing to the FDA as part of an IND, along with other information including information about product candidate chemistry, manufacturing, and controls and our proposed clinical trial protocol. We may rely in part on preclinical, clinical, and quality data generated by contract research organization (CROs) and other third parties for obtaining the data for and preparing regulatory submissions for our product candidates. If these third parties do not make timely regulatory submissions for our product candidates, it will delay our clinical development. If those third parties do not make this data available to us, we will likely have to develop all necessary preclinical and clinical data on our own, which will lead to significant delays and increase development costs of the product candidate. In addition, the FDA may require us to conduct additional preclinical testing for any product candidate before it allows us to initiate clinical testing under any IND for future clinical trials, which may lead to additional delays and increase the costs of our preclinical and clinical development. Delays in the commencement or completion of our planned clinical trials for NS2 or other product candidates could significantly affect our product development costs. We do not know whether future trials will begin on time or be completed on schedule, if at all. The commencement and completion of clinical trials can be delayed for a number of reasons, including delays related to:

 

    the FDA failing to grant permission to proceed or placing the clinical trial on hold;

 

    subjects failing to enroll or remain in our trial at the rate we expect;

 

    subjects choosing an alternative treatment for the indication for which we are developing NS2 or other product candidates, or participating in competing clinical trials;

 

    lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial;

 

    subjects experiencing severe or unexpected drug-related adverse effects;

 

    a facility manufacturing NS2, any of our other product candidates or any of their components being ordered by the FDA or other government or regulatory authorities, to temporarily or permanently shut down due to violations of current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMP, or other applicable requirements, or infections or cross-contaminations of product candidates in the manufacturing process;

 

    any changes to our manufacturing process that may be necessary or desired;

 

    inability to timely manufacture sufficient quantities of the applicable product candidate for the clinical trial or expiration of materials intended for use in the clinical trial;

 

    third-party clinical investigators losing the licenses or permits necessary to perform our clinical trials, not performing our clinical trials on our anticipated schedule or consistent with the clinical trial protocol, Good Clinical Practice or regulatory requirements, or other third parties not performing data collection or analysis in a timely or accurate manner;

 

    inspections of clinical trial sites by the FDA or the finding of regulatory violations by the FDA or an institutional review board, or IRB, that require us to undertake corrective action, result in suspension or termination of one or more sites or the imposition of a clinical hold on the entire trial, or that prohibit us from using some or all of the data in support of our marketing applications;

 

    third-party contractors becoming debarred or suspended or otherwise penalized by the FDA or other government or regulatory authorities for violations of regulatory requirements, in which case we may need to find a substitute contractor, and we may not be able to use some or all of the data produced by such contractors in support of our marketing applications; or

 

    one or more IRBs refusing to approve, suspending or terminating the trial at an investigational site, precluding enrollment of additional subjects, or withdrawing its approval of the trial.

 

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Product development costs will increase if we have delays in testing or approval of NS2 or if we need to perform more or larger clinical trials than planned. Additionally, changes in regulatory requirements and policies may occur and we may need to amend clinical trial protocols to reflect these changes. Amendments may require us to resubmit our clinical trial protocols to IRBs for reexamination, which may impact the costs, timing or successful completion of a clinical trial. If we experience delays in completion of or if we, the FDA or other regulatory authorities, the IRB, other reviewing entities, or any of our clinical trial sites suspend or terminate any of our clinical trials, the commercial prospects for a product candidate may be harmed and our ability to generate product revenues will be delayed. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, termination or suspension of, or a delay in the commencement or completion of, clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of a product candidate. Further, if one or more clinical trials are delayed, our competitors may be able to bring products to market before we do, and the commercial viability of NS2 or other product candidates could be significantly reduced.

We may find it difficult to enroll patients in our clinical trials or identify patients during commercialization (if our products are approved by regulatory agencies) for product candidates addressing orphan or rare diseases.

As part of our business strategy, we plan to evaluate the development and commercialization of product candidates for the treatment of orphan and other rare diseases. Given that we are in the early stages of clinical trials for NS2, we may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials if we are unable to locate a sufficient number of eligible patients willing and able to participate in the clinical trials required by the FDA or other non-United States regulatory agencies. In addition, if others develop product candidates for the treatment of similar diseases, we would potentially compete with them for the enrollment in these rare patient populations, which may adversely impact the rate of patient enrollment in and the timely completion of our current and planned clinical trials. Additionally, insufficient patient enrollment, may be a function of many other factors, including the size and nature of the patient population, the nature of the protocol, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the timing and magnitude of disease symptom presentation, the availability of effective treatments for the relevant disease, and the eligibility criteria for the clinical trial. Our inability to identify and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients for any of our current or future clinical trials would result in significant delays or may require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether. Delays in patient enrollment in the future as a result of these and other factors may result in increased costs or may affect the timing or outcome of our clinical trials, which could prevent us from completing these trials and adversely affect our ability to advance the development of our product candidates. Further, if our products are approved by regulatory agencies, we may not be able to identify sufficient number of patients to generate significant revenues.

Any product candidate we or any of our future development partners advance into clinical trials may cause unacceptable adverse events or have other properties that may delay or prevent its regulatory approval or commercialization or limit its commercial potential.

Unacceptable adverse events caused by any of our product candidates that we advance into clinical trials could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay, or halt clinical trials and could result in the denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or other regulatory authorities for any or all targeted indications and markets. This in turn could prevent us from completing development or commercializing the affected product candidate and generating revenue from its sale.

We have not yet completed testing of any of our product candidates in humans for the treatment of the indications for which we intend to seek approval, and we currently do not know the extent of adverse events, if any, that will be observed in patients who receive any of our product candidates. NS2, for example, has been observed to be toxic at high concentrations in in vitro human dermal tissue. If any of our product candidates cause unacceptable adverse events in clinical trials, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval or commercialize such product candidate.

 

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Final marketing approval for NS2 or our other product candidates by the FDA or other regulatory authorities for commercial use may be delayed, limited, or denied, any of which would adversely affect our ability to generate operating revenues.

After the completion of our clinical trials and, assuming the results of the trials are successful, the submission of an NDA, we cannot predict whether or when we will obtain regulatory approval to commercialize NS2 or our other product candidates and we cannot, therefore, predict the timing of any future revenue. We cannot commercialize NS2 or our other product candidates until the appropriate regulatory authorities have reviewed and approved the applicable applications. We cannot assure you that the regulatory agencies will complete their review processes in a timely manner or that we will obtain regulatory approval for NS2 or our other product candidates. In addition, we may experience delays or rejections based upon additional government regulation from future legislation or administrative action or changes in FDA policy during the period of product development, clinical trials and FDA regulatory review. If marketing approval for NS2 or our other product candidates is delayed, limited or denied, our ability to market the product candidate, and our ability to generate product sales, would be adversely affected.

Even if we obtain marketing approval for NS2 or any other product candidate, it could be subject to restrictions or withdrawal from the market and we may be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or if we experience unanticipated problems with our product candidate, when and if any of them are approved.

Even if United States regulatory approval is obtained, the FDA may still impose significant restrictions on a product’s indicated uses or marketing or impose ongoing requirements for potentially costly and time consuming post-approval studies, post-market surveillance or clinical trials. Following approval, if any, of NS2 or any other product candidates, such candidate will also be subject to ongoing FDA requirements governing the labeling, packaging, storage, distribution, safety surveillance, advertising, promotion, recordkeeping and reporting of safety and other post-market information. In addition, manufacturers of drug products and their facilities are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with cGMP requirements, including those relating to quality control, quality assurance and corresponding maintenance of records and documents. If we or a regulatory agency discovers previously unknown problems with a product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facility where the product is manufactured, a regulatory agency may impose restrictions on that product, the manufacturing facility or us, including requesting recall or withdrawal of the product from the market or suspension of manufacturing.

If we or the manufacturing facilities for NS2 or any other product candidate that may receive regulatory approval, if any, fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory agency may:

 

    issue warning letters or untitled letters;

 

    seek an injunction or impose civil or criminal penalties or monetary fines;

 

    suspend or withdraw regulatory approval;

 

    suspend any ongoing clinical trials;

 

    refuse to approve pending applications or supplements or applications filed by us;

 

    suspend or impose restrictions on operations, including costly new manufacturing requirements; or

 

    seize or detain products, refuse to permit the import or export of product, or request us to initiate a product recall.

The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our ability to commercialize our product candidates and generate revenue.

 

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The FDA has the authority to require a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy plan as part of a NDA or after approval, which may impose further requirements or restrictions on the distribution or use of an approved drug, such as limiting prescribing to certain physicians or medical centers that have undergone specialized training, limiting treatment to patients who meet certain safe-use criteria and requiring treated patients to enroll in a registry.

In addition, if NS2 or any of our other product candidates is approved, our product labeling, advertising and promotion would be subject to regulatory requirements and continuing regulatory review. The FDA strictly regulates the promotional claims that may be made about prescription products. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. If we receive marketing approval for a product candidate, physicians may nevertheless prescribe it to their patients in a manner that is inconsistent with the approved label. If we are found to have promoted such off-label uses, we may become subject to significant liability. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant sanctions. The federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion and has enjoined several companies from engaging in off-label promotion. The FDA has also requested that companies enter into consent decrees or permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed.

Even if we receive regulatory approval for NS2 or any other product candidate, we still may not be able to successfully commercialize it and the revenue that we generate from its sales, if any, could be limited.

Even if our product candidates receive regulatory approval, they may not gain market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payors, and the medical community. Coverage and reimbursement of our product candidates by third-party payors, including government payors, is also generally necessary for commercial success. The degree of market acceptance of our product candidates will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

    demonstration of clinical efficacy and safety compared to other more-established products;

 

    the limitation of our targeted patient population and other limitations or warnings contained in any FDA-approved labeling;

 

    acceptance of a new formulation by health care providers and their patients;

 

    the prevalence and severity of any adverse effects;

 

    new procedures or methods of treatment that may be more effective in treating or may reduce the incidences of SLS or other conditions for which our products are intended to treat;

 

    pricing and cost-effectiveness;

 

    the effectiveness of our or any future collaborators’ sales and marketing strategies;

 

    our ability to obtain and maintain sufficient third-party coverage or reimbursement from government health care programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, private health insurers and other third-party payors;

 

    unfavorable publicity relating to the product candidate; and

 

    the willingness of patients to pay out-of-pocket in the absence of third-party coverage.

If any product candidate is approved but does not achieve an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, hospitals, healthcare payors or patients, we may not generate sufficient revenue from that product candidate and may not become or remain profitable. Our efforts to educate the medical community and third-party payors on the benefits of NS2 or any of our other product candidates may require significant resources and may never be successful. In addition, our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidate will depend on our ability

 

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to manufacture our products, differentiate our products from competing products and defend the intellectual property of our products.

Reimbursement may be limited or unavailable in certain market segments for our product candidates, which could make it difficult for us to sell our product candidates profitably.

Market acceptance and sales of our product candidates will depend significantly on the availability of adequate insurance coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors for any of our product candidates and may be affected by existing and future health care reform measures. Government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which drugs they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. Reimbursement by a third-party payor may depend upon a number of factors including the third-party payor’s determination that use of a product candidate is:

 

    a covered benefit under its health plan;

 

    safe, effective, and medically necessary;

 

    appropriate for the specific patient;

 

    cost-effective; and

 

    neither experimental nor investigational.

Obtaining coverage and reimbursement approval for a product candidate from a government or other third-party payor is a time-consuming and costly process that could require us to provide supporting scientific, clinical and cost effectiveness data for the use of the applicable product candidate to the payor. We may not be able to provide data sufficient to gain acceptance with respect to coverage and reimbursement. We cannot be sure that coverage or adequate reimbursement will be available for any of our product candidates. Further, we cannot be sure that reimbursement amounts will not reduce the demand for, or the price of, our product candidates. If reimbursement is not available or is available only in limited levels, we may not be able to commercialize certain of our product candidates profitably, or at all, even if approved.

As a result of legislative proposals and the trend toward managed health care in the United States, third-party payors are increasingly attempting to contain health care costs by limiting both coverage and the level of reimbursement of new drugs. They may also refuse to provide coverage of approved product candidates for medical indications other than those for which the FDA has granted market approvals. As a result, significant uncertainty exists as to whether and how much third-party payors will reimburse patients for their use of newly approved drugs, which in turn will put pressure on the pricing of drugs. We expect to experience pricing pressures in connection with the sale of our product candidates due to the trend toward managed health care, the increasing influence of health maintenance organizations, and additional legislative proposals as well as country, regional or local healthcare budget limitations.

If we fail to develop and commercialize other product candidates, we may be unable to grow our business.

As part of our growth strategy, we plan to evaluate the development and commercialization of other therapies related to immune-mediated, inflammatory, orphan and other diseases. We will evaluate internal opportunities from our compound libraries, and also may choose to in-license or acquire other product candidates as well as commercial products to treat patients suffering from immune-mediated or orphan or other disorders with high unmet medical needs and limited treatment options. These other product candidates will require additional, time-consuming development efforts prior to commercial sale, including preclinical studies, clinical trials and approval by the FDA and/or applicable foreign regulatory authorities. All product candidates are prone to the risks of failure that are inherent in pharmaceutical product development, including the possibility that the product candidate will not be shown to be sufficiently safe and/or effective for approval by regulatory authorities. In addition, we cannot assure you that any such products that are approved will be manufactured or produced

 

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economically, successfully commercialized or widely accepted in the marketplace or be more effective than other commercially available alternatives.

Orphan drug designation from the FDA may be difficult or not possible to obtain, and if we are unable to obtain orphan drug designation for NS2 or our other product candidates, regulatory and commercial prospects may be negatively impacted.

The FDA designates orphan status to drugs that are intended to treat rare diseases with fewer than 200,000 patients in the United States or that affect more than 200,000 persons but are not expected to recover the costs of developing and marketing a treatment drug. Orphan status drugs do not require prescription drug user fees with a marketing application, may qualify the drug development sponsor for certain tax credits, and can be marketed without generic competition for seven years. We believe that NS2 will qualify as an orphan drug for SLS and noninfectious anterior uveitis, and possibly other diseases that we may test. However, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to receive orphan drug status from the FDA for NS2. If we are unable to secure orphan drug status for NS2 or our other product candidates, our regulatory and commercial prospects may be negatively impacted.

We rely and will continue to rely on outsourcing arrangements for many of our activities, including clinical development and supply of NS2 and our other product candidates.

As of June 30, 2015, we had only seven full-time employees and, as a result, we rely, and expect to continue to rely, on outsourcing arrangements for a significant portion of our activities, including clinical research, data collection and analysis, manufacturing, financial reporting and accounting and human resources, as well as for certain functions as a public company. We may have limited control over these third parties and we cannot guarantee that they will perform their obligations in an effective and timely manner.

We rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials. If these third parties do not meet our deadlines or otherwise conduct the trials as required, our clinical development programs could be delayed or unsuccessful and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize our product candidates when expected or at all.

We do not have the ability to conduct all aspects of our preclinical testing or clinical trials ourselves. We are dependent on third parties to conduct the clinical trials for NS2 and clinical trials for our other future product candidates and, therefore, the timing of the initiation and completion of these trials is controlled by such third parties and may occur on substantially different timing from our estimates. Specifically, we use CROs to conduct our clinical trials and we also rely on medical institutions, clinical investigators and consultants to conduct our trials in accordance with our clinical protocols and regulatory requirements. Our CROs, investigators, and other third parties play a significant role in the conduct of these trials and subsequent collection and analysis of data.

There is no guarantee that any CROs, investigators, or other third parties on which we rely for administration and conduct of our clinical trials will devote adequate time and resources to such trials or perform as contractually required. If any of these third parties fails to meet expected deadlines, fails to adhere to our clinical protocols, or otherwise performs in a substandard manner, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed, or terminated. If any of our clinical trial sites terminates for any reason, we may experience the loss of follow-up information on subjects enrolled in our ongoing clinical trials unless we are able to transfer those subjects to another qualified clinical trial site. In addition, principal investigators for our clinical trials may serve as scientific advisors or consultants to us from time to time and may receive cash or equity compensation in connection with such services. If these relationships and any related compensation result in perceived or actual conflicts of interest, the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site may be jeopardized.

 

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We rely completely on third parties to supply drug substance and manufacture drug product for our clinical trials and preclinical studies. We intend to rely on other third parties to produce commercial supplies of product candidates, and our dependence on third parties could adversely impact our business.

We are completely dependent on third-party suppliers of the drug substance and drug product for our product candidates. If these third-party suppliers do not supply sufficient quantities of materials to us on a timely basis and in accordance with applicable specifications and other regulatory requirements, there could be a significant interruption of our supplies, which would adversely affect clinical development of the product candidate. Furthermore, if any of our contract manufacturers cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and within regulatory requirements, we will not be able to secure and/or maintain regulatory approval, if any, for our product candidates.

We will also rely on our contract manufacturers to purchase from third-party suppliers the materials necessary to produce our product candidates for our anticipated clinical trials. We do not have any control over the process or timing of the acquisition of raw materials by our contract manufacturers. Moreover, we currently do not have agreements in place for the commercial production of these raw materials. Any significant delay in the supply of a product candidate or the raw material components thereof for an ongoing clinical trial could considerably delay completion of that clinical trial, product candidate testing, and potential regulatory approval of that product candidate.

We do not expect to have the resources or capacity to commercially manufacture any of our proposed product candidates if approved, and will likely continue to be dependent on third-party manufacturers. Our dependence on third parties to manufacture and supply us with clinical trial materials and any approved product candidates may adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates on a timely basis.

We are subject to a multitude of manufacturing risks, any of which could substantially increase our costs and limit supply of our products.

The process of manufacturing our products is complex, highly regulated and subject to several risks, including:

 

    The manufacturing of compounds is extremely susceptible to product loss due to contamination, equipment failure, improper installation or operation of equipment, or vendor or operator error. Even minor deviations from normal manufacturing processes could result in reduced production yields, product defects and other supply disruptions. If microbial, viral or other contaminations are discovered in our products or in the manufacturing facilities in which our products are made, such manufacturing facilities may need to be closed for an extended period of time to investigate and remedy the contamination.

 

    The manufacturing facilities in which our products are made could be adversely affected by equipment failures, labor shortages, natural disasters, power failures and numerous other factors.

 

    We and our contract manufacturers must comply with the FDA’s cGMP regulations. We and our contract manufacturers may encounter difficulties in achieving quality control and quality assurance and may experience shortages in qualified personnel.

 

   

We and our contract manufacturers are subject to inspections by the FDA and comparable agencies in other jurisdictions to confirm compliance with applicable regulatory requirements. Any failure to follow cGMP or other regulatory requirements or any delay, interruption or other issues that arise in the manufacture, fill-finish, packaging, or storage of our products as a result of a failure of our facilities or the facilities or operations of third parties to comply with regulatory requirements or pass any regulatory authority inspection could significantly impair our ability to develop and commercialize our products, including leading to significant delays in the availability of products for our clinical studies or the termination or hold on a clinical study, or the delay or prevention of a filing or approval of marketing applications for our product candidates. Significant noncompliance could also result in the

 

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imposition of sanctions, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, failure of regulatory authorities to grant marketing approvals for our product candidates, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could damage our reputation. If we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may not be permitted to market our products and/or may be subject to product recalls, seizures, injunctions, or criminal prosecution.

Any adverse developments affecting manufacturing operations for our products may result in shipment delays, inventory shortages, lot failures, product withdrawals or recalls, or other interruptions in the supply of our products. We may also have to take inventory write-offs and incur other charges and expenses for products that fail to meet specifications, undertake costly remediation efforts or seek more costly manufacturing alternatives.

We may not be successful in establishing and maintaining development or other strategic partnerships, which could adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize product candidates.

We may choose to enter into development or other strategic partnerships in the future, including collaborations with major biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies. We face significant competition in seeking appropriate partners and the negotiation process is time consuming and complex. Moreover, we may not be successful in our efforts to establish a development partnership or other alternative arrangements for any of our other existing or future product candidates and programs because our research and development pipeline may be insufficient, our product candidates and programs may be deemed to be at too early a stage of development for collaborative effort and/or third parties may not view our product candidates and programs as having the requisite potential to demonstrate safety and efficacy. Even if we are successful in our efforts to establish development partnerships, the terms that we agree upon may not be favorable to us and we may not be able to maintain such development partnerships if, for example, development or approval of a product candidate is delayed or sales of an approved product candidate are disappointing. Any delay in entering into development partnership agreements related to our product candidates could delay the development and commercialization of our product candidates and reduce their competitiveness if they reach the market.

Moreover, if we fail to maintain development or other strategic partnerships related to our product candidates that we may choose to enter into:

 

    the development of certain of our current or future product candidates may be terminated or delayed;

 

    our cash expenditures related to development of certain of our current or future product candidates would increase significantly and we may need to seek additional financing;

 

    we may be required to hire additional employees or otherwise develop expertise, such as sales and marketing expertise, for which we have not budgeted; and

 

    we will bear all of the risk related to the development of any such product candidates.

We may form strategic alliances in the future, and we may not realize the benefits of such alliances.

We may form strategic alliances, create joint ventures or collaborations or enter into licensing arrangements with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our existing business, including for the continued development or commercialization of NS2 or our other product candidates. These relationships or those like them may require us to incur nonrecurring and other charges, increase our near- and long-term expenditures, issue securities that dilute our existing stockholders or disrupt our management and business. In addition, we face significant competition in seeking appropriate strategic partners and the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex. Moreover, we may not be successful in our efforts to establish a strategic partnership or other alternative arrangements for NS2 or our other product candidates because third parties may view the risk of success in our planned clinical trial as too significant or the commercial opportunity for our product candidate as too limited. We cannot be certain that, following a strategic transaction or license, we will achieve the revenues or specific net income that justifies such transaction.

 

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If our competitors develop treatments for the target indications of our product candidates that are approved more quickly than ours, marketed more successfully or demonstrated to be safer or more effective than our product candidates, our commercial opportunity will be reduced or eliminated.

We operate in highly competitive segments of the biotechnology and biopharmaceutical markets. We face competition from many different sources, including commercial pharmaceutical and biotechnology enterprises, academic institutions, government agencies, and private and public research institutions. Our product candidates, if successfully developed and approved, will compete with established therapies as well as with new treatments that may be introduced by our competitors. With the exception of SLS, there are a variety of drug candidates in development for the indications that we intend to test. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, product candidate development, manufacturing, and marketing resources than we do. Large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have extensive experience in clinical testing and obtaining regulatory approval for drugs. In addition, universities and private and public research institutes may be active in aldehyde research, and some could be in direct competition with us. We also may compete with these organizations to recruit management, scientists, and clinical development personnel. We will also face competition from these third parties in establishing clinical trial sites, registering subjects for clinical trials, and in identifying and in-licensing new product candidates. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies.

New developments, including the development of other pharmaceutical technologies and methods of treating disease, occur in the pharmaceutical and life sciences industries at a rapid pace. Developments by competitors may render our product candidates obsolete or noncompetitive. There are methods that can potentially be employed to trap aldehydes that we have not conceived of or attempted to patent, and other parties may discover and patent aldehyde trapping approaches and compositions that are similar to or different from ours. Competition in drug development is intense. We anticipate that we will face intense and increasing competition as new treatments enter the market and advanced technologies become available.

Our future success depends on our ability to demonstrate and maintain a competitive advantage with respect to the design, development and commercialization of NS2 and our other product candidates. Noninfectious anterior uveitis and other inflammatory diseases may be treated with general immune suppressing therapies, including corticosteriods, some of which are generic. Our potential competitors in these diseases may be developing novel immune modulating therapies that may be safer or more effective than NS2 or our other product candidates.

We have no sales, marketing or distribution capabilities and we will have to invest significant resources to develop these capabilities.

We have no internal sales, marketing or distribution capabilities. If NS2 or any of our other product candidates ultimately receives regulatory approval, we may not be able to effectively market and distribute the product candidate. We will have to invest significant amounts of financial and management resources to develop internal sales, distribution and marketing capabilities, some of which will be committed prior to any confirmation that NS2 or any of our other product candidates will be approved. We may not be able to hire consultants or external service providers to assist us in sales, marketing and distribution functions on acceptable financial terms or at all. Even if we determine to perform sales, marketing and distribution functions ourselves, we could face a number of additional related risks, including:

 

    we may not be able to attract and build an effective marketing department or sales force;

 

    the cost of establishing a marketing department or sales force may exceed our available financial resources and the revenues generated by NS2 or any other product candidates that we may develop, in-license or acquire; and

 

    our direct sales and marketing efforts may not be successful.

 

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We are highly dependent on the services of our employees and certain key consultants.

As a company with a limited number of personnel, we are highly dependent on the development, regulatory, commercial, and financial expertise of our senior management team composed of three individuals and certain other employees: Todd C. Brady, M.D., Ph.D., our President and Chief Executive Officer; Scott L. Young, our Chief Operating Officer; and Stephen J. Tulipano, our Chief Financial Officer. In addition we rely on the services of a number of key consultants, including IP, pharmacokinetic, chemistry, toxicology, dermatologic drug development and ocular drug development consultants. The loss of such individuals or the services of future members of our management team could delay or prevent the further development and potential commercialization of our product candidates and, if we are not successful in finding suitable replacements, could harm our business.

If we fail to attract and retain senior management and key commercial personnel, we may be unable to successfully develop or commercialize our product candidates.

We will need to expand and effectively manage our managerial, operational, financial, and other resources in order to successfully pursue our clinical development and commercialization efforts. Our success also depends on our continued ability to attract, retain, and motivate highly qualified management and scientific personnel and we may not be able to do so in the future due to intense competition among biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, universities, and research organizations for qualified personnel. If we are unable to attract and retain the necessary personnel, we may experience significant impediments to our ability to implement our business strategy.

We expect to expand our management team. Our future performance will depend, in part, on our ability to successfully integrate newly hired executive officers into our management team and our ability to develop an effective working relationship among senior management. Our failure to integrate these individuals and create effective working relationships among them and other members of management could result in inefficiencies in the development and commercialization of our product candidates, harming future regulatory approvals, sales of our product candidates and our results of operations.

We may encounter difficulties in managing our growth and expanding our operations successfully.

Because as of June 30, 2015 we had only seven full-time employees, we will need to grow our organization to continue development and pursue the potential commercialization of NS2 and our other product candidates, as well as function as a public company. As we seek to advance NS2 and other product candidates, we will need to expand our financial, development, regulatory, manufacturing, marketing and sales capabilities or contract with third parties to provide these capabilities for us. As our operations expand, we expect that we will need to manage additional relationships with various strategic partners, suppliers and other third parties. Future growth will impose significant added responsibilities on members of management and require us to retain additional internal capabilities. Our future financial performance and our ability to commercialize our product candidates and to compete effectively will depend, in part, on our ability to manage any future growth effectively. To that end, we must be able to manage our development efforts and clinical trials effectively and hire, train and integrate additional management, clinical and regulatory, financial, administrative and sales and marketing personnel. We may not be able to accomplish these tasks, and our failure to so accomplish could prevent us from successfully growing our company.

Recently enacted and future legislation may increase the difficulty and cost for us to obtain marketing approval of and commercialize our product candidates and may affect the prices we may obtain.

In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding healthcare systems that could prevent or delay marketing approval for

 

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our product candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our ability to profitably sell our product candidates.

Legislative and regulatory proposals have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for pharmaceutical products. We are not sure whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether the FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing approvals of our product candidates, if any, may be. In addition, increased scrutiny by the United States Congress of the FDA’s approval process may significantly delay or prevent marketing approval, as well as subject us to more stringent product labeling and post-marketing testing and other requirements.

In the United States, the Medical Modernization Act of 2003, or MMA, changed the way Medicare covers and pays for pharmaceutical products. The legislation expanded Medicare coverage for drug purchases by the elderly and introduced a new reimbursement methodology based on average sales prices for drugs. In addition, this legislation authorized Medicare Part D prescription drug plans to use formulas where they can limit the number of drugs that will be covered in any therapeutic class. As a result of this legislation and the expansion of federal coverage of drug products, we expect that there will be additional pressure to contain and reduce costs. These cost reduction initiatives and other provisions of this legislation could decrease the coverage and price that we receive for any approved products and could seriously harm our business. While the MMA applies only to drug benefits for Medicare beneficiaries, private payors often follow Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement rates, and any reduction in reimbursement that results from the MMA may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors.

In early 2010, President Obama signed into law the Health Care Reform Law, a sweeping law intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, enhance remedies against fraud and abuse, add new transparency requirements for healthcare and health insurance industries, impose new taxes and fees on the health industry and imposed additional health policy reforms. Effective October 1, 2010, the Health Care Reform Law revised the definition of “average manufacturer price” for reporting purposes, which could increase the amount of Medicaid drug rebates to states. Further, beginning in 2011, the Health Care Reform Law imposes a significant annual fee on companies that manufacture or import branded prescription drug products. Substantial new provisions affecting compliance have also been enacted, which may require us to modify our business practices with healthcare practitioners. Although it is too early to determine the effect of the Health Care Reform Law on our business, the new law appears likely to continue the pressure on pharmaceutical pricing, especially under Medicare, and may also increase our regulatory burdens and operating costs.

The continuing efforts of the government, insurance companies, managed care organizations, and other payors of healthcare services to contain or reduce costs of health care may adversely affect:

 

    the demand for any product candidates for which we may obtain regulatory approval;

 

    our ability to set a price that we believe is fair for our product candidates;

 

    our ability to generate revenue and achieve or maintain profitability;

 

    the level of taxes that we are required to pay; and

 

    the availability of capital.

If we market products in a manner that violates healthcare fraud and abuse laws, or if we violate government price reporting laws, we may be subject to civil or criminal penalties.

In addition to FDA restrictions on the marketing of pharmaceutical products, several other types of state and federal healthcare fraud and abuse laws have been applied in recent years to restrict certain marketing practices

 

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in the pharmaceutical industry. These laws include false claims statutes and anti-kickback statutes. Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the safe harbors, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of these laws.

Federal false claims laws prohibit any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment to the federal government or knowingly making, or causing to be made, a false statement to get a false claim paid. The federal healthcare program anti-kickback statute prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting or receiving remuneration to induce, or in return for, purchasing, leasing, ordering or arranging for the purchase, lease or order of any healthcare item or service reimbursable under Medicare, Medicaid or other federally financed healthcare programs. This statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers on the one hand and prescribers, purchasers and formula managers on the other. Although there are several statutory exemptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting certain common activities from prosecution, the exemptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly, and practices that involve remuneration intended to induce prescribing, purchasing or recommending may be subject to scrutiny if they do not qualify for an exemption or safe harbor. Our practices may not in all cases meet all of the criteria for safe harbor protection from anti-kickback liability.

Over the past few years, several pharmaceutical and other healthcare companies have been prosecuted under these laws for a variety of alleged promotional and marketing activities, such as: allegedly providing free trips, free goods, sham consulting fees and grants and other monetary benefits to prescribers; reporting to pricing services inflated average wholesale prices that were then used by federal programs to set reimbursement rates; engaging in off-label promotion that caused claims to be submitted to Medicaid for non-covered, off-label uses; and submitting inflated best price information to the Medicaid Rebate Program to reduce liability for Medicaid rebates. Most states also have statutes or regulations similar to the federal anti-kickback law and false claims laws, which apply to items and services reimbursed under Medicaid and other state programs, or, in several states, apply regardless of the payor. Sanctions under these federal and state laws may include civil monetary penalties, exclusion of a manufacturer’s products from reimbursement under government programs, criminal fines and imprisonment.

Governments may impose price controls, which may adversely affect our future profitability.

We intend to seek approval to market our product candidates in both the United States and in foreign jurisdictions. If we obtain approval in one or more foreign jurisdictions, we will be subject to rules and regulations in those jurisdictions relating to our product candidates. In some foreign countries, particularly in the European Union, the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a product candidate. If reimbursement of our future products is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, we may be unable to achieve or sustain profitability.

If product liability lawsuits are brought against us, we may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of NS2 or our other product candidates.

We face an inherent risk of product liability as a result of the clinical testing of NS2 and our other product candidates and will face an even greater risk if we commercialize our product candidates. For example, we may be sued if NS2 or our other product candidates allegedly cause injury or are found to be otherwise unsuitable during product testing, manufacturing, marketing or sale. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product candidate, negligence, strict liability and a breach of warranties. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts.

If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit commercialization of our product candidates. Even successful defense would require

 

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significant financial and management resources. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

 

    decreased demand for NS2 or our other product candidates;

 

    injury to our reputation;

 

    withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

 

    costs to defend the related litigation;

 

    a diversion of management’s time and our resources;

 

    substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;

 

    product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;

 

    loss of revenue;

 

    the inability to commercialize NS2 or our other product candidates; and

 

    a decline in our stock price.

We maintain product liability insurance with $3.0 million in coverage. Our inability to obtain and retain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of NS2 or our other product candidates. Although we will maintain such insurance, any claim that may be brought against us could result in a court judgment or settlement in an amount that is not covered, in whole or in part, by our insurance or that is in excess of the limits of our insurance coverage. Our insurance policies will also have various exclusions, and we may be subject to a product liability claim for which we have no coverage. We may have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts.

We and our development partners, third-party manufacturers and suppliers use biological materials and may use hazardous materials, and any claims relating to improper handling, storage, or disposal of these materials could be time consuming or costly.

We and our development partners, third-party manufacturers and suppliers may use hazardous materials, including chemicals and biological agents and compounds that could be dangerous to human health and safety or the environment. Our operations and the operations of our development partner, third-party manufacturers and suppliers also produce hazardous waste products. Federal, state, and local laws and regulations govern the use, generation, manufacture, storage, handling, and disposal of these materials and wastes. Compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations may be expensive and current or future environmental laws and regulations may impair our product development efforts. In addition, we cannot entirely eliminate the risk of accidental injury or contamination from these materials or wastes. We do not carry specific biological or hazardous waste insurance coverage and our property, casualty, and general liability insurance policies specifically exclude coverage for damages and fines arising from biological or hazardous waste exposure or contamination. Accordingly, in the event of contamination or injury we could be held liable for damages or be penalized with fines in an amount exceeding our resources, and our clinical trials or regulatory approvals could be suspended.

We and any of our future development partners will be required to report to regulatory authorities if any of our approved products cause or contribute to adverse medical events, and any failure to do so would result in sanctions that would materially harm our business.

If we and any of our future development partners are successful in commercializing our products, the FDA and foreign regulatory authorities will require that we and any of our future development partners report certain

 

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information about adverse medical events if those products may have caused or contributed to those adverse events. The timing of our obligation to report would be triggered by the date we become aware of the adverse event as well as the nature of the event. We and any of our future development partners may fail to report adverse events we become aware of within the prescribed timeframe or perform inadequate investigations of their causes. We and any of our future development partners may also fail to appreciate that we have become aware of a reportable adverse event, especially if it is not reported to us as an adverse event or if it is an adverse event that is unexpected or removed in time from the use of our products. If we and any of our future development partners fail to comply with our reporting obligations, the FDA or a foreign regulatory authority could take action including criminal prosecution, the imposition of civil monetary penalties, seizure of our products, or delay in approval or clearance of future products.

Our insurance policies are expensive and protect us only from some business risks, which leaves us exposed to significant uninsured liabilities.

We do not carry insurance for all categories of risk that our business may encounter. Some of the policies we currently maintain include general liability, product and clinical trial liability, workers’ compensation, and directors’ and officers’ insurance. We do not know, however, if we will be able to maintain existing insurance with adequate levels of coverage. Any significant, uninsured liability may require us to pay substantial amounts, which would adversely affect our working capital and results of operations.

If we engage in an acquisition, reorganization or business combination, we will incur a variety of risks that could adversely affect our business operations or our stockholders.

From time to time we have considered, and we will continue to consider in the future, strategic business initiatives intended to further the development of our business. These initiatives may include acquiring businesses, technologies or products or entering into a business combination with another company. If we do pursue such a strategy, we could, among other things:

 

    issue equity securities that would dilute our current stockholders’ percentage ownership;

 

    incur substantial debt that may place strains on our operations;

 

    spend substantial operational, financial and management resources in integrating new businesses, technologies and products; and

 

    assume substantial actual or contingent liabilities.

Our internal computer systems, or those of our development partners, third-party clinical research organizations or other contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches, which could result in a material disruption of our product development programs.

Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems and those of our current and any future CROs and other contractors, consultants and collaborators are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. While we have not experienced any such material system failure, accident or security breach to date, if such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our development programs and our business operations. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or future clinical trials could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Likewise, we rely on third parties to manufacture our product candidates and conduct clinical trials, and similar events relating to their computer systems could also have a material adverse effect on our business. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development and commercialization of our product candidate could be delayed.

 

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Business disruptions could seriously harm our future revenues and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses.

Our operations could be subject to earthquakes, power shortages, telecommunications failures, water shortages, floods, hurricanes, typhoons, fires, extreme weather conditions, medical epidemics and other natural or manmade disasters or business interruptions, for which we are predominantly self-insured. The occurrence of any of these business disruptions could seriously harm our operations and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses. We rely on third-party manufacturers to produce NS2 and our other product candidates. Our ability to obtain clinical supplies of NS2 or our other product candidates could be disrupted, if the operations of these suppliers are affected by a man-made or natural disaster or other business interruption.

Our employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements and insider trading.

We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees could include intentional failures to comply with FDA regulations, provide accurate information to regulatory authorities, comply with manufacturing standards we have established, comply with federal and state health care fraud and abuse laws and regulations, report financial information or data accurately, or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, sales, marketing, and business arrangements in the health care industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self-dealing, and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs, and other business arrangements. Employee misconduct could also involve improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation.

In addition, during the course of our operations our directors, executives, and employees may have access to material, nonpublic information regarding our business, our results of operations, or potential transactions we are considering. We may not be able to prevent a director, executive, or employee from trading in our common stock on the basis of, or while having access to, material, nonpublic information. If a director, executive, or employee was to be investigated or an action were to be brought against a director, executive, or employee for insider trading, it could have a negative impact on our reputation and our stock price. Such a claim, with or without merit, could also result in substantial expenditures of time and money, and divert attention of our management team from other tasks important to the success of our business.

Risks Relating to Our Intellectual Property

Our success depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property and our proprietary technologies.

Our commercial success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection and trade secret protection for our product candidates, proprietary technologies, and their uses as well as our ability to operate without infringing upon the proprietary rights of others. There can be no assurance that our patent applications or those of our licensors will result in additional patents being issued or that issued patents will afford sufficient protection against competitors with similar technology, nor can there be any assurance that the patents issued will not be infringed, designed around, or invalidated by third parties. Even issued patents may later be found unenforceable or may be modified or revoked in proceedings instituted by third parties before various patent offices or in courts. The degree of future protection for our proprietary rights is uncertain. Only limited protection may be available and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage. This failure to properly protect the intellectual property rights relating to these product candidates could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Composition-of-matter patents on the biological or chemical active pharmaceutical ingredient are generally considered to be the strongest form of intellectual property protection for pharmaceutical products, as such patents provide protection without regard to any method of use. While we have issued composition-of-matter

 

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patents in the United States and other countries for NS2, we cannot be certain that the claims in our patent applications covering composition-of-matter of our other product candidates will be considered patentable by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and courts in the United States or by the patent offices and courts in foreign countries, nor can we be certain that the claims in our issued composition-of-matter patents will not be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged. Method-of-use patents protect the use of a product for the specified method. This type of patent does not prevent a competitor from making and marketing a product that is identical to our product for an indication that is outside the scope of the patented method. Moreover, even if competitors do not actively promote their product for our targeted indications, physicians may prescribe these products “off-label.” Although off-label prescriptions may infringe or contribute to the infringement of method-of-use patents, the practice is common and such infringement is difficult to prevent or prosecute. In addition, there are possibly methods that can be employed to trap aldehydes that we have not conceived of or attempted to patent, and other parties may discover and patent aldehyde trapping approaches and compositions that are similar to or different from ours.

The patent application process is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, and there can be no assurance that we or any of our future development partners will be successful in protecting our product candidates by obtaining and defending patents. These risks and uncertainties include the following:

 

    the USPTO and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other provisions during the patent process. There are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. In such an event, competitors might be able to enter the market earlier than would otherwise have been the case;

 

    patent applications may not result in any patents being issued;

 

    patents that may be issued or in-licensed may be challenged, invalidated, modified, revoked, circumvented, found to be unenforceable, or otherwise may not provide any competitive advantage;

 

    our competitors, many of whom have substantially greater resources than we do and many of whom have made significant investments in competing technologies, may seek or may have already obtained patents that will limit, interfere with, or eliminate our ability to make, use, and sell our potential product candidates;

 

    there may be significant pressure on the United States government and international governmental bodies to limit the scope of patent protection both inside and outside the United States for disease treatments that prove successful, as a matter of public policy regarding worldwide health concerns; and

 

    countries other than the United States may have patent laws less favorable to patentees than those upheld by United States courts, allowing foreign competitors a better opportunity to create, develop, and market competing product candidates.

In addition, we rely on the protection of our trade secrets and proprietary know-how. Although we have taken steps to protect our trade secrets and unpatented know-how, including entering into confidentiality agreements with third parties, and confidential information and inventions agreements with employees, consultants, and advisors, third parties may still obtain this information or may come upon this or similar information independently. If any of these events occurs or if we otherwise lose protection for our trade secrets or proprietary know-how, the value of this information may be greatly reduced.

Claims by third parties that we infringe their proprietary rights may result in liability for damages or prevent or delay our developmental and commercialization efforts.

The biotechnology industry has been characterized by frequent litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. Because patent applications are maintained in secrecy until the application is published, we may be unaware of third party patents that may be infringed by commercialization of NS2 or our other product

 

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candidates. In addition, identification of third party patent rights that may be relevant to our technology is difficult because patent searching is imperfect due to differences in terminology among patents, incomplete databases and the difficulty in assessing the meaning of patent claims. Any claims of patent infringement asserted by third parties would be time consuming and could likely:

 

    result in costly litigation;

 

    divert the time and attention of our technical personnel and management;

 

    cause development delays;

 

    prevent us from commercializing NS2 or our other product candidates until the asserted patent expires or is held finally invalid or not infringed in a court of law;

 

    require us to develop non-infringing technology; or

 

    require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements.

Although no third party has asserted a claim of patent infringement against us, others may hold proprietary rights that could prevent NS2 or our other product candidates from being marketed. Any patent-related legal action against us claiming damages and seeking to enjoin commercial activities relating to our product candidate or processes could subject us to potential liability for damages and require us to obtain a license to continue to manufacture or market NS2 or our other product candidates. We cannot predict whether we would prevail in any such actions or that any license required under any of these patents would be made available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. In addition, we cannot be sure that we could redesign our product candidate or processes to avoid infringement, if necessary. Accordingly, an adverse determination in a judicial or administrative proceeding, or the failure to obtain necessary licenses, could prevent us from developing and commercializing NS2 or our other product candidates, which could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

Any such claims against us could also be deemed to constitute an event of default under our loan and security agreement with Square 1 Bank. In the case of a continuing event of default under the loan, Square 1 Bank could, among other remedies, elect to declare all amounts outstanding to be immediately due and payable and terminate all commitments to extend further credit. Although as of June 30, 2015, we had sufficient cash and cash equivalents to repay all obligations owed to Square 1 Bank if the debt was accelerated, in the event we do not or are not able to repay the obligations at the time a default occurred, Square 1 Bank may elect to commence and prosecute bankruptcy and/or other insolvency proceedings, or proceed against the collateral granted to Square 1 Bank under the loan, which includes our intellectual property.

Our issued patents could be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged in court.

If we or any of our future development partners were to initiate legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering one of our product candidates, or one of our future product candidates, the defendant could counterclaim that our patent is invalid and/or unenforceable. In patent litigation in the United States, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity and/or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of novelty, obviousness or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement during prosecution. Third parties may also raise similar claims before the USPTO, even outside the context of litigation. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable. With respect to the validity question, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which we and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity and/or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on such product candidate. Such a loss of patent protection would have a material adverse impact on our business.

 

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We may fail to comply with any of our obligations under existing agreements pursuant to which we license rights or technology, which could result in the loss of rights or technology that are material to our business.

We are a party to a technology license that is important to our business and we may enter into additional licenses in the future. We currently hold a license from Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated that covers use of an excipient in our eye drops. This license imposes various commercial, contingent payment, royalty, insurance, indemnification, and other obligations on us. If we fail to comply with these obligations, the licensor may have the right to terminate the license, in which event we would lose valuable rights under our collaboration agreements and our ability to develop product candidates.

We may be subject to claims that we have wrongfully hired an employee from a competitor or that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged confidential information or trade secrets of their former employers.

As is common in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry, we engage the services of consultants to assist us in the development of our product candidates. Many of these consultants were previously employed at, or may have previously provided or may be currently providing consulting services to, other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies including our competitors or potential competitors. We may become subject to claims that our company or a consultant inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other information proprietary to their former employers or their former or current clients. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to our management team.

If we do not obtain protection under the Hatch-Waxman Amendments by extending the patent terms and obtaining data exclusivity for our product candidate, our business may be materially harmed.

Depending upon the timing, duration and specifics of FDA marketing approval of NS2 or other product candidates, one or more of our United States patents may be eligible for limited patent term restoration under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, referred to as the Hatch-Waxman Amendments. The Hatch-Waxman Amendments permit a patent restoration term of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during product development and the FDA regulatory review process. However, we may not be granted an extension because of, for example, failing to apply within applicable deadlines, failing to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents or otherwise failing to satisfy applicable requirements. Moreover, the applicable time period or the scope of patent protection afforded could be less than we request. If we are unable to obtain patent term extension or restoration or the term of any such extension is less than we request, our competitors may obtain approval of competing products following our patent expiration, and our revenue could be reduced, possibly materially.

If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.

If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected. Our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names, which we need to build name recognition among potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. At times, competitors may adopt trade names or trademarks similar to ours, thereby impeding our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to market confusion. In addition, there could be potential trade name or trademark infringement claims brought by owners of other registered trademarks or trademarks that incorporate variations of our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names. As of March 2014, we adopted a new brand, Aldeyra Therapeutics. The USPTO has determined that our applications to register ALDEYRA THERAPEUTICS and our logo are allowable, and we expect the registration certificates to issue in due course. Over the long term, if

 

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we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected. Our efforts to enforce or protect our proprietary rights related to trademarks, trade secrets, domain names, copyrights or other intellectual property may be ineffective and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could adversely impact our financial condition or results of operations.

Changes in United States patent law could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect our product candidates.

As is the case with other biopharmaceutical companies, our success is heavily dependent on intellectual property, particularly patents. Obtaining and enforcing patents in the biopharmaceutical industry involve technological and legal complexity. Therefore, obtaining and enforcing biopharmaceutical patents is costly, time consuming, and inherently uncertain. In addition, Congress may pass patent reform legislation. The Supreme Court has ruled on several patent cases in recent years, either narrowing the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances or weakening the rights of patent owners in certain situations. In addition to increasing uncertainty with regard to our ability to obtain patents in the future, this combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the value of patents, once obtained. Depending on decisions by the United States Congress, the federal courts, and the USPTO, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that would weaken our ability to obtain new patents or to enforce our existing patents and patents we might obtain in the future.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

While we have issued composition-of-matter patents covering NS2 in the United States and other countries, filing, prosecuting and defending patents on NS2 and our other product candidates in all countries throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive, and our intellectual property rights in some countries outside the United States can be less extensive than those in the United States. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as federal and state laws in the United States. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions in all countries outside the United States, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions in and into the United States or other jurisdictions. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection, but enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our product candidates and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biopharmaceuticals, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license.

 

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Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Capital

If we fail to obtain the capital necessary to fund our operations, we will be unable to successfully develop and commercialize NS2 and our other product candidates.

We will require substantial future capital in order to complete the remaining clinical development for NS2 and our other product candidates and to potentially commercialize these product candidates. We expect our spending levels to increase in connection with our clinical trials of NS2 and our other product candidates, as well as other corporate activities. The amount and timing of any expenditure needed to implement our development and commercialization programs will depend on numerous factors, including:

 

    the type, number, scope, progress, expansion costs, results of and timing of our planned clinical trials of NS2 or any our other product candidates which we are pursuing or may choose to pursue in the future;

 

    the need for, and the progress, costs and results of, any additional clinical trials of NS2 and our other product candidates we may initiate based on the results of our planned clinical trials or discussions with the FDA, including any additional trials the FDA or other regulatory agencies may require evaluating the safety of NS2 and our other product candidates;

 

    the costs of obtaining, maintaining and enforcing our patents and other intellectual property rights;

 

    the costs and timing of obtaining or maintaining manufacturing for NS2 and our other product candidates, including commercial manufacturing if any product candidate is approved;

 

    the costs and timing of establishing sales and marketing capabilities and enhanced internal controls over financial reporting;

 

    the terms and timing of establishing collaborations, license agreements and other partnerships on terms favorable to us;

 

    costs associated with any other product candidates that we may develop, in-license or acquire;

 

    the effect of competing technological and market developments;

 

    our ability to establish and maintain partnering arrangements for development; and

 

    the costs associated with being a public company.

Some of these factors are outside of our control. We do not expect our existing capital resources to be sufficient to enable us to fund the completion of our clinical trials and remaining development program through commercial introduction. We expect that we will need to raise additional funds in the near future.

We have not sold any products, and we do not expect to sell or derive revenue from any product sales for the foreseeable future. We may seek additional funding through collaboration agreements and public or private financings, including debt financings. Additional funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. In addition, the terms of any financing may adversely affect the holdings or the rights of our stockholders. In addition, the issuance of additional shares by us, or the possibility of such issuance, may cause the market price of our shares to decline.

If we are unable to obtain funding on a timely basis, we will be unable to complete the planned clinical trials for NS2 and our other product candidates and we may be required to significantly curtail some or all of our activities. We also could be required to seek funds through arrangements with collaborative partners or otherwise that may require us to relinquish rights to our product candidates or some of our technologies or otherwise agree to terms unfavorable to us.

 

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The terms of our secured debt facility require us to meet certain operating and financial covenants and place restrictions on our operating and financial flexibility. If we raise additional capital through debt financing, the terms of any new debt could further restrict our ability to operate our business.

We had a $5.0 million Credit Facility with Square 1 Bank (Square 1) that is secured by a lien covering all of our assets as of June 30, 2015. As of June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the outstanding principal balance under the Credit Facility was approximately $1.4 million. Under the terms of the Credit Facility, (i) $2,000,000 was made available on November 10, 2014; and (ii) $3,000,000 (the Tranche B Loan) is to be made available to us following the satisfaction of certain conditions, including receipt of positive phase 2 data (as determined by the Aldeyra Board of Directors) in either SLS or noninfectious anterior uveitis. However, we can provide no assurances that we will satisfy the conditions for the Tranche B Loan. The loan agreement contains customary affirmative and negative covenants and events of default. Affirmative covenants include, among others, covenants requiring us to maintain our legal existence and governmental approvals, deliver certain financial reports and maintain insurance coverage. Negative covenants include, among others, restrictions on transferring any part of our business or property, changing our business, including changing the composition of our executive team or board of directors, incurring additional indebtedness, engaging in mergers or acquisitions, paying dividends or making other distributions, making investments and creating other liens on our assets and other financial covenants, in each case subject to customary exceptions. If we default under the terms of the loan agreement, including failure to satisfy our operating covenants, the lender may accelerate all of our repayment obligations and take control of our pledged assets, potentially requiring us to renegotiate our agreement on terms less favorable to us or to immediately cease operations. Further, if we are liquidated, the lender’s right to repayment would be senior to the rights of the holders of our common stock. The lender could declare a default upon the occurrence of any event that they interpret as a material adverse effect as defined under the loan agreement. Any declaration by the lender of an event of default could significantly harm our business and prospects and could cause the price of our common stock to decline. If we raise any additional debt financing, the terms of such additional debt could further restrict our operating and financial flexibility.

Our ability to use net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards and certain built-in losses to reduce future tax payments may be limited by provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, and may be subject to further limitation as a result of our public offerings and private placements.

Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change” (generally defined as a greater than 50% change (by value) in its equity ownership over a three year period), the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes to offset its post-change income may be limited. We believe that, as a result of our public offerings, private placements and other transactions, we may have experienced an “ownership change.” We may also experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership. As of December 31, 2014, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $16.2 million and $13.3 million, respectively, and federal and state research and development credits of approximately $392,000 and $45,000, respectively, which could be limited if we experience an “ownership change.” Any such limitations would generally be equal to our equity value at the time of the ownership change multiplied by a risk-free rate of return published monthly by the IRS.

Risks Related to the Offering and Our Common Stock

An active trading market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained and investors may not be able to resell their shares at or above the price at which they purchased them.

We have a limited history as a public company. An active trading market for our shares may never develop or be sustained. In the absence of an active trading market for our common stock, investors may not be able to sell their common stock at or above the price they paid or at the time that they would like to sell. In addition, an inactive market may impair our ability to raise capital by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire other companies or technologies by using our shares as consideration, which, in turn, could harm our business.

 

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The trading price of the shares of our common stock has been and is likely to continue to be highly volatile, and purchasers of our common stock could incur substantial losses.

Our stock price has been and will likely continue to be volatile for the foreseeable future. The stock market in general and the market for biotechnology companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, investors may not be able to sell their common stock at or above the price they paid. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

 

    our ability to enroll patients in our planned clinical trials;

 

    results of the clinical trials, and the results of trials of our competitors or those of other companies in our market sector;

 

    regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

    variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

 

    changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems, especially in light of current reforms to the United States healthcare system;

 

    announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

    market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors and issuance of securities analysts’ reports or recommendations;

 

    sales of our stock by insiders and 5% stockholders;

 

    trading volume of our common stock;

 

    general economic, industry and market conditions other events or factors, many of which are beyond our control;

 

    additions or departures of key personnel; and

 

    intellectual property, product liability or other litigation against us.

In addition, in the past, stockholders have initiated class action lawsuits against biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies following periods of volatility in the market prices of these companies’ stock. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could cause us to incur substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly.

We expect our operating results to be subject to quarterly fluctuations. Our net loss and other operating results will be affected by numerous factors, including:

 

    variations in the level of expenses related to our clinical trial and development programs;

 

    addition or termination of clinical trials;

 

    any intellectual property infringement lawsuit in which we may become involved;

 

    regulatory developments affecting NS2 and our other product candidates;

 

    our execution of any collaborative, licensing or similar arrangements, and the timing of payments we may make or receive under these arrangements;

 

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    nature and terms of stock-based compensation grants; and

 

    derivative instruments recorded at fair value.

If our quarterly operating results fall below the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of our common stock could decline substantially. Furthermore, any quarterly fluctuations in our operating results may, in turn, cause the price of our stock to fluctuate substantially.

Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of The NASDAQ Capital Market could result in a delisting of our common stock.

If we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of The NASDAQ Capital Market, such as the corporate governance requirements or the minimum closing bid price requirement, NASDAQ may take steps to de-list our common stock. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of our common stock and would impair your ability to sell or purchase our common stock when you wish to do so. In the event of a delisting, we would expect to take actions to restore our compliance with NASDAQ’s listing requirements, but we can provide no assurance that any such action taken by us would allow our common stock to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our common stock, prevent our common stock from dropping below the NASDAQ minimum bid price requirement or prevent future non-compliance with NASDAQ’s listing requirements.

If our shares become subject to the penny stock rules, it would become more difficult to trade our shares.

The SEC has adopted rules that regulate broker-dealer practices in connection with transactions in penny stocks. Penny stocks are generally equity securities with a price of less than $5.00, other than securities registered on certain national securities exchanges or authorized for quotation on certain automated quotation systems, provided that current price and volume information with respect to transactions in such securities is provided by the exchange or system. If we do not retain a listing on The NASDAQ Capital Market and if the price of our common stock is less than $5.00, our common stock will be deemed a penny stock. The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, before a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document containing specified information. In addition, the penny stock rules require that before effecting any transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, a broker-dealer must make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive (i) the purchaser’s written acknowledgment of the receipt of a risk disclosure statement; (ii) a written agreement to transactions involving penny stocks; and (iii) a signed and dated copy of a written suitability statement. These disclosure requirements may have the effect of reducing the trading activity in the secondary market for our common stock, and therefore stockholders may have difficulty selling their shares.

We may allocate our cash and cash equivalents, including the proceeds we receive in this offering, in ways that you and other stockholders may not approve.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of our cash and cash equivalents, including the net proceeds from this offering, and you will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of these proceeds. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of our cash and cash equivalents, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management might not apply our cash and cash equivalents in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. We expect to use of our cash and cash equivalents to fund our planned clinical trials of NS2, development of other molecules that may relate to our aldehyde trapping platform, and the remainder for working capital and other general corporate purposes. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we may invest our cash and cash equivalents in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply our cash and cash equivalents in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.

 

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You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

Because a small number of our existing stockholders own a majority of our voting stock, your ability to influence corporate matters will be limited.

As of June 30, 2015, our executive officers, directors and greater than 5% stockholders, in the aggregate, own approximately 71.0% of our outstanding common stock. As a result, such persons, acting together, will have the ability to control our management and affairs and substantially all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election and removal of directors and approval of any significant transaction. These persons will also have the ability to control our management and business affairs. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control, impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us, or discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our business, even if such a transaction would benefit other stockholders.

Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.

Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may delay or prevent an acquisition of us or a change in our management. These provisions include:

 

    authorizing the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval;

 

    limiting the removal of directors by the stockholders;

 

    creating a staggered board of directors;

 

    prohibiting stockholder action by written consent, thereby requiring all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of our stockholders;

 

    eliminating the ability of stockholders to call a special meeting of stockholders;

 

    permitting our board of directors to accelerate the vesting of outstanding option grants upon certain transactions that result in a change of control; and

 

    establishing advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings.

In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which limits the ability of stockholders owning in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock to merge or combine with us. Although we believe these provisions collectively provide for an opportunity to obtain greater value for stockholders by requiring potential acquirors to negotiate with our board of directors, they would apply even if an offer rejected by our board were considered beneficial by some stockholders. In addition, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management.

 

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We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock and, consequently, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividend on our common stock and do not currently intend to do so for the foreseeable future. We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. In addition, our loan and security agreement with Square 1 Bank currently prohibits us from paying dividends on our equity securities, and any future debt financing arrangement may contain terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our common stock. Any return to stockholders will therefore be limited to the appreciation of their stock. Therefore, the success of an investment in shares of our common stock will depend upon any future appreciation in their value. There is no guarantee that shares of our common stock will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which our stockholders have purchased their shares.

A substantial number of shares of our common stock could be sold into the public market in the near future, which could depress our stock price.

Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market could reduce the prevailing market prices for our common stock. Substantially all of our outstanding common stock are eligible for sale as are common stock issuable under vested and exercisable stock options. If our existing stockholders sell a large number of shares of our common stock, or the public market perceives that existing stockholders might sell shares of common stock, the market price of our common stock could decline significantly. These sales might also make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities at a time and price that we deem appropriate.

We are an emerging growth company, and we cannot be certain if the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding nonbinding advisory votes on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years, although circumstances could cause us to lose that status earlier, including if we become a large accelerated filer, if we have total annual gross revenue of $1.0 billion or more during any fiscal year before that time, in which cases we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31 or, if we issue more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during any three year period before that time, we would cease to be an emerging growth company immediately. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may still qualify as a “smaller reporting company” which would allow us to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

We are incurring significant increased costs and demands upon management as a result of operating as a public company.

As a public company, we are incurring significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as

 

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amended, or the Exchange Act, which require, among other things, that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently adopted by the SEC, and The NASDAQ Capital Market to implement provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, impose significant requirements on public companies, including requiring establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and changes in corporate governance practices. Further, in 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, was enacted. There are significant corporate governance and executive compensation related provisions in the Dodd-Frank Act that require the SEC to adopt additional rules and regulations in these areas such as “say on pay” and proxy access. Recent legislation permits smaller “emerging growth companies” to implement many of these requirements over a longer period and up to five years from our Initial Public Offering. We intend to continue to take advantage of this new legislation but cannot guarantee that we will not be required to implement these requirements sooner than budgeted or planned and thereby incur unexpected expenses. Stockholder activism, the current political environment and the current high level of government intervention and regulatory reform may lead to substantial new regulations and disclosure obligations, which may lead to additional compliance costs and impact the manner in which we operate our business in ways we cannot currently anticipate.

We expect the rules and regulations applicable to public companies to continue to substantially increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly. If these requirements divert the attention of our management and personnel from other business concerns, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The increased costs will decrease our net income or increase our net loss, and may require us to reduce costs in other areas of our business or increase the prices of our products or services. For example, these rules and regulations make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be required to incur substantial costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. We cannot predict or estimate the amount or timing of additional costs we may incur to respond to these requirements. The impact of these requirements could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.

If we fail to maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements could be impaired, which could harm our operating results, investors’ views of us and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, our management is required to report upon the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. When and if we are a “large accelerated filer” or an “accelerated filer” and are no longer an “emerging growth company,” each as defined in the Exchange Act, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. However, for so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404. Once we are no longer an emerging growth company or, if prior to such date, we opt to no longer take advantage of the applicable exemption, we will be required to include an opinion from our independent registered public accounting firm on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. The rules governing the standards that must be met for management to assess our internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing, and possible remediation. To comply with the requirements of being a reporting company under the Exchange Act, we need to upgrade our systems including information technology; implement additional financial and management controls, reporting systems, and procedures; and hire additional accounting and finance staff.

Historically, we have not had sufficient accounting and supervisory personnel with the appropriate level of technical accounting experience and training necessary or adequate formally documented accounting policies and procedures to support, effective internal controls. As we grow, we will hire additional personnel and engage in

 

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external temporary resources and may implement, document and modify policies and procedures to maintain effective internal controls. However, we may identify deficiencies and weaknesses or fail to remediate previously identified deficiencies in our internal controls. If material weaknesses or deficiencies in our internal controls exist and go undetected or unremediated, our financial statements could contain material misstatements that, when discovered in the future, could cause us to fail to meet our future reporting obligations and cause the price of our common stock to decline.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports or publish unfavorable research or reports about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. We currently have limited research coverage by securities and industry analysts. If other securities or industry analysts do not commence coverage of our company, the trading price for our stock could be negatively impacted. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our stock, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases to cover us or fails to regularly publish reports on us, interest in our stock could decrease, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

We could be subject to securities class action litigation.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. This risk is especially relevant for us because pharmaceutical companies have experienced significant stock price volatility in recent years. If we face such litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

PREFERRED STOCK

We currently have authorized 15,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001, the rights and preferences of which may be established from time to time by our board of directors.

Under Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized, without stockholder approval, to issue shares of preferred stock from time to time in one or more series. Subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, the board of directors can determine the number of shares constituting each series of preferred stock and the designation, preferences, voting powers, qualifications, and special or relative rights or privileges of that series. These may include provisions concerning voting, redemption, dividends, dissolution or the distribution of assets, conversion or exchange, and other subjects or matters as may be fixed by resolution of our board of directors or an authorized committee of the board. Any preferred stock offered by this prospectus will, when issued, be fully paid and nonassessable.

Our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock with terms and conditions which could have the effect of discouraging a takeover or other transaction which holders of some, or a majority, of our common stock might believe to be in their best interests or in which holders of some, or a majority, of our common stock might receive a premium for their shares over the then market price of those shares.

If we offer a specific series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will describe the terms of the preferred stock in the prospectus supplement for such offering and will file a copy of the certificate establishing the terms of the preferred stock with the SEC. To the extent required, this description will include:

 

    the title and stated value;

 

    the number of shares offered, the liquidation preference per share, and the purchase price;

 

    the dividend rate(s), period(s), and/or payment date(s), or method(s) of calculation for such dividends;

 

    whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

    the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

 

    the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

 

    any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

    whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price (or how it will be calculated) and conversion period;

 

    whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price (or how it will be calculated) and exchange period;

 

    voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;

 

    a discussion of any material and/or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

    the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of the affairs of Aldeyra; and

 

    any material limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of Aldeyra.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for any series or class of preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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COMMON STOCK

We currently have authorized 150,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share. As of August 14, 2015, there were 9,712,521 shares of common stock outstanding held of record by 22 stockholders.

The following summary of the terms of our common stock is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, copies of which are on file with the SEC as exhibits to previous SEC filings. Please refer to the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” for directions on obtaining these documents.

Voting Rights . Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share of common stock held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Except as otherwise provided by law or our restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws, all matters other than the election of directors submitted to the stockholders at any meeting shall be decided by the affirmative vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote thereon. Directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast at the meeting. Our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting rights. Because of this, the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose.

Dividends . Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, the holders of our outstanding shares of common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds.

Liquidation . In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Other Rights and Preferences . Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Fully Paid and Nonassessable . All of our outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and nonassessable.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws and Delaware Law. Some provisions of Delaware law and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws could make the following transactions more difficult: our acquisition by means of a tender offer; our acquisition by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or removal of our incumbent officers and directors.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law is applicable to takeovers of Delaware corporations. Subject to exceptions enumerated in Section 203, Section 203 provides that a corporation shall not engage in any business combination with any “interested stockholder” for a three-year period following the date that the stockholder becomes an interested stockholder unless:

 

    prior to that date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation

 

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outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, though some shares may be excluded from the calculation; and

 

    on or subsequent to that date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and by the affirmative votes of holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Except as specified in Section 203, an interested stockholder is generally defined to include any person who, together with any affiliates or associates of that person, beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation, or is an affiliate or associate of the corporation and was the owner of 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation, any time within three years immediately prior to the relevant date. Under certain circumstances, Section 203 makes it more difficult for an interested stockholder to effect various business combinations with a corporation for a three-year period, although the stockholders may elect not to be governed by this section, by adopting an amendment to the certificate of incorporation or bylaws, effective 12 months after adoption. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws do not opt out from the restrictions imposed under Section 203. We anticipate that the provisions of Section 203 may encourage companies interested in acquiring us to negotiate in advance with our board of directors because the stockholder approval requirement would be avoided if a majority of the directors then in office excluding an interested stockholder approve either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder. These provisions may have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control, which could depress the market price of our common stock and deprive stockholders of opportunities to realize a premium on shares of common stock held by them.

In addition to our board of directors’ ability to issue shares of preferred stock, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that may discourage, delay or prevent a change in our management or control over us that stockholders may consider favorable. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws:

 

    authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that could be issued by our board of directors to thwart a takeover attempt;

 

    do not provide for cumulative voting in the election of directors, which would allow holders of less than a majority of the stock to elect some directors;

 

    establish a classified board of directors, as a result of which the successors to the directors whose terms have expired will be elected to serve from the time of election and qualification until the third annual meeting following their election;

 

    require that directors only be removed from office for cause;

 

    provide that vacancies on the board of directors, including newly-created directorships, may be filled only by a majority vote of directors then in office;

 

    limit who may call special meetings of stockholders;

 

    prohibit stockholder action by written consent, requiring all actions to be taken at a meeting of the stockholders; and

 

    establish advance notice requirements for nominating candidates for election to the board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company.

Listing. Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “ALDX.”

 

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DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue, from time to time, debt securities in one or more series that will consist of either senior debt or subordinated debt under one or more trust indentures to be executed by us and a specified trustee. The terms of the debt securities will include those stated in the indenture and those made a part of the indenture (before any supplements) by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act. Debt securities, whether senior or subordinated, may be issued as convertible debt securities or exchangeable debt securities.

The following description sets forth certain anticipated general terms and provisions of the debt securities to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement (which terms may be different than those stated below) and the extent, if any, to which such general provisions may apply to the debt securities so offered will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to such debt securities. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of a particular issue of debt securities, investors should review both the prospectus supplement relating thereto and the following description. Forms of the senior indenture (as discussed herein) and the subordinated indenture (as discussed herein) are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

General

The debt securities will be our direct obligations and may be either senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities. The indebtedness represented by subordinated securities will be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment in full of our senior debt (as defined in the applicable indenture). Senior securities and subordinated securities will be issued pursuant to separate indentures (respectively, a senior indenture and a subordinated indenture), in each case between us and a trustee.

Except as set forth in the applicable indenture and described in a prospectus supplement relating thereto, the debt securities may be issued without limit as to aggregate principal amount, in one or more series, secured or unsecured, in each case as established from time to time in or pursuant to authority granted by a resolution of our board of directors or as established in the applicable indenture. All debt securities of one series need not be issued at the time and, unless otherwise provided, a series may be reopened, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of such series, for issuance of additional debt securities of such series. The applicable indenture may provide that we may issue debt securities in any currency or currency unit designated by us. Except for any limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets that may be contained in the applicable indenture, the terms of such indenture will not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to afford holders of any debt securities protection with respect to our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

The prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities being offered will contain the specific terms thereof, including, without limitation:

 

    the title of such debt securities and whether such debt securities are senior securities or subordinated securities and the terms of any such subordination;

 

    the aggregate principal amount of such debt securities and any limit on such aggregate principal amount;

 

    the percentage of the principal amount at which such debt securities will be issued and, if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or (if applicable) the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities which is convertible into common stock or preferred stock, or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

    the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, on which the principal of such debt securities will be payable;

 

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    the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable), or the method by which the rate or rates shall be determined, at which such debt securities will bear interest, if any;

 

    the date or dates, or the method for determining such date or dates, from which any interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which any such interest will be payable, the regular record dates for such interest payment dates, or the method by which any such date shall be determined, the person to whom such interest shall be payable, and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

    the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of the extensions;

 

    the place or places where the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on such debt securities will be payable, such debt securities may be surrendered for conversion or registration of transfer or exchange and notices or demands to or upon us in respect of such debt securities and the applicable indenture may be served;

 

    the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities may be redeemed, as a whole or in part, at our option, if we have such an option;

 

    our obligation, if any, to redeem, repay or purchase such debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provision or at the option of a holder thereof, and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be redeemed, repaid or purchased, as a whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

    if other than U.S. dollars, the currency or currencies in which such debt securities are denominated and payable, which may be a foreign currency or units of two or more foreign currencies or a composite currency or currencies, and the terms and conditions relating thereto;

 

    whether the amount of payments of principal of (and premium, if any) or interest, if any, on such debt securities may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method (which index, formula or method may, but need not be, based on a currency, currencies, currency unit or units or composite currencies) and the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

    any additions to, modifications of or deletions from the terms of such debt securities with respect to the events of default or covenants set forth in the indenture;

 

    any provisions for collateral security for repayment of such debt securities;

 

    whether such debt securities will be issued in certificated and/or book-entry form;

 

    whether such debt securities will be in registered or bearer form and, if in registered form, the denominations thereof if other than $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof and, if in bearer form, the denominations thereof and terms and conditions relating thereto;

 

    whether issued in the form of one or more global securities and whether all or a portion of the principal amount of the debt securities is represented thereby;

 

    if other than the entire principal amount of the debt securities when issued, the portion of the principal amount payable upon acceleration of maturity, and the terms and conditions of any acceleration;

 

    if applicable, covenants affording holders of debt protection with respect to our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us;

 

    the applicability, if any, of defeasance and covenant defeasance provisions of the applicable indenture;

 

    the terms, if any, upon which such debt securities may be convertible into our common stock or preferred stock and the terms and conditions upon which such conversion will be effected, including, without limitation, the initial conversion price or rate and the conversion period;

 

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    if applicable, any limitations on the ownership or transferability of the common stock or preferred stock into which such debt securities are convertible;

 

    whether and under what circumstances we will pay additional amounts as contemplated in the indenture on such debt securities in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem such debt securities in lieu of making such payment; and

 

    any other material terms of such debt securities.

The debt securities may provide for less than the entire principal amount thereof to be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof. Special federal income tax, accounting and other considerations applicable to these original issue discount securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth material U.S. federal income tax considerations for holders of any debt securities and the securities exchange or quotation system on which any debt securities are listed or quoted, if any.

The applicable indenture may contain provisions that would limit our ability to incur indebtedness or that would afford holders of debt securities protection in the event of a highly leveraged or similar transaction involving us or in the event of a change of control.

Senior Debt Securities

Payment of the principal of premium, if any, and interest on senior debt securities will rank on parity with all of our other senior unsecured and unsubordinated debt.

Subordinated Debt Securities

Payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on subordinated debt securities will be subordinated and junior in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all of our senior debt. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to any subordinated debt securities the subordination terms of such securities as well as the aggregate amount of outstanding indebtedness, as of the most recent practicable date, that by its terms would be senior to the subordinated debt securities. We will also set forth in such prospectus supplement limitations, if any, on issuance of additional senior debt.

Merger, Consolidation or Sale

The applicable indenture will provide that we may consolidate with, or sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our assets to, or merge with or into, any other corporation, provided that:

 

    either we shall be the continuing corporation, or the successor corporation (if other than the Company) formed by or resulting from any such consolidation or merger or which shall have received the transfer of such assets shall expressly assume payment of the principal of (and premium, if any), and interest on, all of the applicable debt securities and the due and punctual performance and observance of all of the covenants and conditions contained in the applicable indenture;

 

    immediately after giving effect to such transaction and treating any indebtedness which becomes our obligation or an obligation of one of our subsidiaries as a result thereof as having been incurred by us or such subsidiary at the time of such transaction, no event of default under the applicable indenture, and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become such an event of default, shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

    an officer’s certificate and legal opinion covering such conditions shall be delivered to the applicable trustee.

 

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Covenants

The applicable indenture will contain covenants requiring us to take certain actions and prohibiting us from taking certain actions. The covenants with respect to any series of debt securities will be described in the prospectus supplement relating thereto.

Events of Default, Notice and Waiver

Each indenture will describe specific “events of default” with respect to any series of debt securities issued thereunder. Such “events of default” are likely to include (with grace and cure periods):

 

    default in the payment of any installment of interest on any debt security of such series;

 

    default in the payment of principal of (or premium, if any, on) any debt security of such series at its maturity or upon any redemption, by declaration or otherwise;

 

    default in making any required sinking fund payment for any debt security of such series;

 

    default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty of the Company contained in the applicable indenture (other than a covenant added to the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities issued thereunder other than such series), continued for a specified period of days after written notice as provided in the applicable indenture;

 

    default in the payment of specified amounts of indebtedness of the Company or any mortgage, indenture or other instrument under which such indebtedness is issued or by which such indebtedness is secured, such default having occurred after the expiration of any applicable grace period and having resulted in the acceleration of the maturity of such indebtedness, but only if such indebtedness is not discharged or such acceleration is not rescinded or annulled;

 

    certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, or court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or trustee of the Company or any of our significant subsidiaries or their property; and

 

    any other event of default provided in the applicable resolution of our board of directors or the supplemental indenture under which we issue series of debt securities.

An event of default for a particular series of debt securities does not necessarily constitute an event of default for any other series of debt securities issued under the indenture. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, if an event of default under any indenture with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the applicable trustee or the holders of not less than a majority of the principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may declare the principal amount (or, if the debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities or indexed securities, such portion of the principal amounts may be specified in the terms thereof) of all the debt securities of that series to be due and payable immediately by written notice thereof to us (and to the applicable trustee if given by the holders). However, at any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of such series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under any indenture, as the case may be) has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the applicable trustee, the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture, as the case may be) may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if:

 

    we shall have deposited with the applicable trustee all required payments of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the debt securities of such series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture, as the case may be), plus certain fees, expenses, disbursements and advances of the applicable trustee; and

 

    all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal (or specified portion thereof), with respect to debt securities of such series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture, as the case may be) have been cured or waived as provided in such indenture.

 

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If an event of default relating to events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of the Company occurs and is continuing, then the principal amount of all of the debt securities outstanding, and any accrued interest, will automatically become due and payable immediately, without any declaration or other act by the trustee or any holder.

Each indenture also will provide that the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture, as the case may be) may waive any past default with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default:

 

    in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any debt security of such series; or

 

    in respect of a covenant or provision contained in the applicable indenture that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security affected thereby.

Each trustee will be required to give notice to the holders of debt securities within 90 days of a default under the applicable indenture unless such default shall have been cured or waived; provided, however, that such trustee may withhold notice to the holders of any series of debt securities of any default with respect to such series (except a default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any debt security of such series or in the payment of any sinking fund installment in respect of any debt security of such series) if specified responsible officers of such trustee consider such withholding to be in the interest of such holders.

Each indenture will provide that no holders of debt securities of any series may institute any proceedings, judicial or otherwise, with respect to such indenture or for any remedy thereunder, except in the case of failure of the applicable trustee, for 60 days, to act after it has received a written request to institute proceedings in respect of an event of default from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, as well as an offer of indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it. This provision will not prevent, however, any holder of debt securities from instituting suit for the enforcement of payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such debt securities at the respective due dates thereof.

Each indenture provides that in case an event of default shall occur and be known to any trustee and not be cured, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would use in the conduct of his or her own affairs in the exercise of the trustee’s power. Subject to provisions in each indenture relating to its duties in case of default, no trustee will be under any obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under an indenture at the request or direction of any holders of any series of debt securities then outstanding under such indenture, unless such holders shall have offered to the trustee thereunder reasonable security or indemnity. The holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or of all debt securities then outstanding under an indenture, as the case may be) shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the applicable trustee, or of exercising any trust or power conferred upon such trustee. However, a trustee may refuse to follow any direction which is in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture, which may involve such trustee in personal liability or which may be unduly prejudicial to the holders of debt securities of such series not joining therein.

Within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year, we will be required to deliver to each trustee a certificate, signed by one of several specified officers, stating whether or not such officer has knowledge of any default under the applicable indenture and, if so, specifying each such default and the nature and status thereof.

Modification of the Indenture

Each indenture provides that we and the trustee may enter into supplemental indentures without the consent of the holders of debt securities to:

 

    secure any debt securities;

 

    evidence the assumption by a successor corporation of our obligations;

 

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    add covenants for the protection of the holders of debt securities;

 

    cure any ambiguity or correct any inconsistency in the indenture;

 

    establish the forms or terms of debt securities of any series; and

 

    evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee.

It is anticipated that modifications and amendments of an indenture may be made by us and the trustee, with the consent of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of each series of the outstanding debt securities issued under the indenture that are affected by the modification or amendment, provided that no such modification or amendment may, without the consent of each holder of such debt securities affected thereby:

 

    change the stated maturity date of the principal of (or premium, if any) or any installment of interest, if any, on any such debt security;

 

    reduce the principal amount of (or premium, if any) or the interest, if any, on any such debt security or the principal amount due upon acceleration of an original issue discount security;

 

    change the time or place or currency of payment of principal of (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on any such debt security;

 

    impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or with respect to any such debt security;

 

    reduce any amount payable on redemption;

 

    modify any of the subordination provisions or the definition of senior indebtedness applicable to any subordinated debt securities in a manner adverse to the holders of those securities;

 

    reduce the above-stated percentage of holders of debt securities necessary to modify or amend the indenture; or

 

    modify the foregoing requirements or reduce the percentage of outstanding debt securities necessary to waive compliance with certain provisions of the indenture or for waiver of certain defaults.

A record date may be set for any act of the holders with respect to consenting to any amendment. The holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of each series affected thereby will have the right to waive our compliance with certain covenants in such indenture. Each indenture will contain provisions for convening meetings of the holders of debt securities of a series to take permitted action.

A prospectus supplement may set forth modifications or additions to these provisions with respect to a particular series of debt securities.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

A prospectus supplement will describe the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, preferred stock or other securities. These terms will also include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. Such provisions will also include the conversion or exchange price (or manner or calculation thereof), the conversion or exchange period, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price, and provisions affecting conversion or exchange in the event of the redemption of such series of debt securities.

Registered Global Securities

We may issue the debt securities of a series in whole or in part in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that we will deposit with a depositary or with a nominee for a depositary identified in the

 

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applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of such depositary or nominee. In such case, we will issue one or more registered global securities denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of all of the debt securities of the series to be issued and represented by such registered global security or securities.

Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for debt securities in definitive registered form, a registered global security may not be transferred except as a whole:

 

    by the depositary for such registered global security to its nominee;

 

    by a nominee of the depositary to the depositary or another nominee of the depositary; or

 

    by the depositary or its nominee to a successor of the depositary or a nominee of the successor.

The prospectus supplement relating to a series of debt securities will describe the specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any portion of such series represented by a registered global security. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements for debt securities:

 

    ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons that have accounts with the depositary for the registered global security, those persons being referred to as “participants,” or persons that may hold interests through participants;

 

    upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary for the registered global security will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal amounts of the debt securities represented by the registered global security beneficially owned by the participants;

 

    any dealers, underwriters, or agents participating in the distribution of the debt securities will designate the accounts to be credited; and

 

    ownership of any beneficial interest in the registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of any ownership interest will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary for the registered global security (with respect to interests of participants) and on the records of participants (with respect to interests of persons holding through participants).

The laws of some states may require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of the securities in definitive form. These laws may limit the ability of those persons to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in registered global securities.

So long as the depositary for a registered global security, or its nominee, is the registered owner of the registered global security, the depositary or the nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the debt securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes under the indenture. Except as set forth below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security:

 

    will not be entitled to have the debt securities represented by a registered global security registered in their names;

 

    will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the debt securities in the definitive form; and

 

    will not be considered the owners or holders of the debt securities under the indenture.

Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for the registered global security and, if the person is not a participant, on the procedures of a participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the indenture.

 

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We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the indenture, the depositary for the registered global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take the action, and those participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through those participants to give or take the action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

We will make payments of principal and premium, if any, and interest, if any, on debt securities represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owners of the registered global security. None of the Company, the trustee or any other agent of the Company or the trustee will be responsible or liable for any aspect of the records relating to, or payments made on account of, beneficial ownership interests in the registered global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to the beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any debt securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payments of principal and premium, if any, and interest, if any, in respect of the registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in the registered global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that standing customer instructions and customary practices will govern payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in the registered global security held through the participants, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” We also expect that any of these payments will be the responsibility of the participants.

If the depositary for any debt securities represented by a registered global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, we will appoint an eligible successor depositary. If we fail to appoint an eligible successor depositary within 90 days, we will issue the debt securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security. In addition, we may at any time and in our sole discretion decide not to have any of the debt securities of a series represented by one or more registered global securities. In such event, we will issue debt securities of that series in a definitive form in exchange for all of the registered global securities representing the debt securities. The trustee will register any debt securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a registered global security in such name or names as the depositary, based upon instructions from its participants, shall instruct the trustee.

We may also issue bearer debt securities of a series in the form of one or more global securities, referred to as “bearer global securities.” We will deposit these bearer global securities with a common depositary for Euroclear System and Clearstream Bank Luxembourg, Societe Anonyme, or with a nominee for the depositary identified in the prospectus supplement relating to that series. The prospectus supplement relating to a series of debt securities represented by a bearer global security will describe the specific terms and procedures, including the specific terms of the depositary arrangement and any specific procedures for the issuance of debt securities in definitive form in exchange for a bearer global security, with respect to the position of the series represented by a bearer global security.

Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

We can discharge or defease our obligations under the indenture as set forth below. Unless otherwise set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, the subordination provisions applicable to any subordinated debt securities will be expressly subject to the discharge and defeasance provisions of the indenture.

We may discharge some of our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities that have not already been delivered to the trustee for cancellation and that have either become due and payable or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year (or are scheduled for redemption within one year). We may effect a discharge by irrevocably depositing with the trustee cash or U.S. government obligations, as trust funds, in an

 

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amount certified to be sufficient to pay when due, whether at maturity, upon redemption or otherwise, the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities and any mandatory sinking fund payments.

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may also discharge any and all of our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities at any time (“defeasance”). We also may be released from the obligations imposed by any covenants of any outstanding series of debt securities and provisions of the indenture, and we may omit to comply with those covenants without creating an event of default (“covenant defeasance”). We may effect defeasance and covenant defeasance only if, among other things:

 

    we irrevocably deposit with the trustee cash or U.S. government obligations, as trust funds, in an amount certified to be sufficient to pay at maturity (or upon redemption) the principal, premium, if any, and interest on all outstanding debt securities of the series; and

 

    we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel from a nationally recognized law firm to the effect that the holders of the series of debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of the defeasance or covenant defeasance and that defeasance or covenant defeasance will not otherwise alter the holders’ U.S. federal income tax treatment of principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on the series of debt securities, which opinion, in the case of legal defeasance, must be based on a ruling of the Internal Revenue Service issued, or a change in U.S. federal income tax law.

Although we may discharge or defease our obligations under the indenture as described in the two preceding paragraphs, we may not avoid, among other things, our duty to register the transfer or exchange of any series of debt securities, to replace any temporary, mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen series of debt securities or to maintain an office or agency in respect of any series of debt securities.

Redemption of Securities

Debt securities may also be subject to optional or mandatory redemption on terms and conditions described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

From and after notice has been given as provided in the applicable indenture, if funds for the redemption of any debt securities called for redemption shall have been made available on such redemption date, such debt securities will cease to bear interest on the date fixed for such redemption specified in such notice, and the only right of the holders of the debt securities will be to receive payment of the redemption price.

Notices

Holders of our debt securities will receive notices by mail at their addresses as they appear in the security register.

Title

We may treat the person in whose name a debt security is registered on the applicable record date as the owner of the debt security for all purposes, whether or not it is overdue.

Governing Law

Unless otherwise set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, New York law will govern the indentures and the debt securities, without regard to its conflicts of law principles.

 

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Concerning the Trustee

Each indenture provides that there may be more than one trustee under the indenture, each with respect to one or more series of debt securities. If there are different trustees for different series of debt securities, each trustee will be a trustee of a trust under the indenture separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee under the indenture. Except as otherwise indicated in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, any action permitted to be taken by a trustee may be taken by such trustee only with respect to the one or more series of debt securities for which it is the trustee under the indenture. Any trustee under the indenture may resign or be removed with respect to one or more series of debt securities. All payments of principal of, premium, if any, and interest on, and all registration, transfer, exchange, authentication and delivery (including authentication and delivery on original issuance of the debt securities) of, the debt securities of a series will be effected by the trustee with respect to that series at an office designated by the trustee in New York, New York.

Each indenture contains limitations on the right of the trustee, should it become a creditor of the Company, to obtain payment of claims in some cases or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim as security or otherwise. The trustee may engage in other transactions. If it acquires any conflicting interest relating to any duties with respect to the debt securities, however, it must eliminate the conflict or resign as trustee.

WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of debt securities, preferred stock, common stock, or any combination thereof. We may issue warrants independently or together with any other securities offered by any prospectus supplement and may be attached to or separate from the other offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into by us with a warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants. Further terms of the warrants and the applicable warrant agreements will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The applicable prospectus supplement relating to any particular issue of warrants will describe the terms of the warrants, including, as applicable, the following:

 

    the title of the warrants;

 

    the aggregate number of the warrants;

 

    the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

 

    the designation, terms and number of shares of preferred stock or common stock or principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

    the designation and terms of the offered securities, if any, with which the warrants are issued and the number of the warrants issued with each offered security;

 

    the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related debt securities, preferred stock or common stock will be separately transferable;

 

    the price at which each share of preferred stock, common stock or underlying debt securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants may be purchased or the manner of determining such price;

 

    the date on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and the date on which that right shall expire;

 

    the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

 

    information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

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    a discussion of certain federal income tax considerations; and

 

    any other material terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

We and the warrant agent may amend or supplement the warrant agreement for a series of warrants without the consent of the holders of the warrants issued thereunder to effect changes that are not inconsistent with the provisions of the warrants and that do not materially and adversely affect the interests of the holders of the warrants.

USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for research and development activities for NS2, including our currently planned clinical trials of NS2 and development of other molecules that may relate to our aldehyde trapping platform, and the remainder for working capital and other general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we are not currently planning or negotiating any such transactions. We have not yet determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for any of the foregoing purposes. Accordingly, our management will have significant discretion and flexibility in applying the net proceeds from the sale of these securities. Pending any use, as described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds in high-quality, short-term, interest-bearing securities.

RATIO OF FIXED CHARGES AND PREFERENCE DIVIDENDS TO EARNINGS

Our ratio of combined fixed charges and preference dividends to earnings for each of the five most recently completed fiscal years and any required interim periods will each be specified in a prospectus supplement or in a document that we file with the SEC and incorporate by reference pertaining to the issuance, if any, by us of preference securities in the future.

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for use in the operation of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to compliance with certain covenants under our credit facilities, which restrict or limit our ability to declare or pay dividends, and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities covered by this prospectus in any of three ways (or in any combination):

 

    to or through underwriters or dealers;

 

    directly to a limited number of purchasers or to a single purchaser; or

 

    through agents.

 

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We may also sell equity securities covered by this registration statement in an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act. Such offering may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price, either:

 

    on or through the facilities of The Nasdaq Capital Market or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale; and/or

 

    to or through a market maker otherwise than on The Nasdaq Capital Market or such other securities exchanges or quotation or trading services.

Such at-the-market offerings, if any, may be conducted by underwriters acting as principal or agent.

Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will set forth the terms of the offering of the securities covered by this prospectus, including:

 

    the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents and the amounts of securities underwritten or purchased by each of them;

 

    the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

    any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities;

 

    any underwriting discounts or commissions or agency fees and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation;

 

    the public offering price of the securities;

 

    any discounts, commissions or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

    any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time. or dealers may offer and sell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. If underwriters or dealers are used in the sale of any securities, the securities will be acquired by such underwriters or dealers for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions described above. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters, or directly by underwriters or dealers. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters or dealers will be obligated to purchase all the securities of the series offered by the prospectus supplement. We will describe the nature of any such relationship in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter or dealer.

We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We may sell the securities through agents from time to time. The prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities and any commissions we pay to them. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, any agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

We may authorize underwriters, dealers or agents to solicit offers by certain purchasers to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The prospectus supplement will set forth the conditions to these contracts and any commissions we pay for solicitation of these contracts.

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities being offered hereby will be passed upon by Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP, Boston, Massachusetts.

 

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EXPERTS

The financial statements as of December 31, 2014 and 2013 and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2014 incorporated by reference in this Prospectus, constituting a part of the Registration Statement on Form S-3 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

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Laidlaw & Company (UK) Ltd.

            , 2017